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How do different types of pathogens function in evading immune system responses?

Pathogens evade immune system responses through various mechanisms.

Pathogens are microorganisms that cause diseases in humans and animals. They have evolved different strategies to evade the immune system, which is responsible for defending the body against infections. One way pathogens evade the immune system is by hiding from it. Some pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can live inside immune cells and avoid detection. Other pathogens, such as the influenza virus, can change their surface proteins to avoid recognition by the immune system.

Another way pathogens evade the immune system is by suppressing it. Some pathogens, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can infect and kill immune cells, weakening the immune system's ability to fight infections. Other pathogens, such as the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can produce toxins that suppress the immune system's response.

Pathogens can also evade the immune system by mimicking host cells. Some pathogens, such as the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, can produce a capsule that resembles the host's own cells, making it difficult for the immune system to identify them as foreign. Other pathogens, such as the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum, can change their surface proteins to mimic host cells, avoiding detection by the immune system.

In conclusion, pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to evade the immune system's response. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for developing effective treatments and vaccines against infectious diseases.

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