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How do reaction rates relate to enzyme-substrate affinity?

Reaction rates increase with higher enzyme-substrate affinity due to more efficient binding and catalysis.

Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions in living organisms. They work by binding to specific substrates and converting them into products. The affinity between an enzyme and its substrate determines how easily they bind together. Enzymes with high affinity bind tightly to their substrates, while those with low affinity bind more loosely.

The rate of a reaction depends on the frequency of successful collisions between enzyme and substrate. Enzymes with high affinity increase the likelihood of successful collisions, leading to faster reaction rates. This is because the enzyme can quickly and efficiently bind to the substrate, reducing the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

On the other hand, enzymes with low affinity require more collisions to occur before a successful binding event can take place. This results in slower reaction rates as the activation energy required for the reaction to occur is higher.

Therefore, the higher the enzyme-substrate affinity, the faster the reaction rate. This is why enzymes with high affinity are more efficient catalysts than those with low affinity. Understanding the relationship between enzyme-substrate affinity and reaction rates is crucial for understanding the role of enzymes in biological processes and for developing new drugs and therapies.

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