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How does transcription occur, and what is the role of RNA polymerase in this process?

Transcription occurs when RNA polymerase reads the DNA sequence and synthesizes a complementary RNA strand.

Transcription is the process by which genetic information in DNA is copied into RNA. It occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells. The first step in transcription is the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter region of the DNA. This region signals the start of a gene and determines which strand of DNA will be transcribed.

Once RNA polymerase is bound, it begins to read the DNA sequence and synthesizes a complementary RNA strand. The RNA strand is built one nucleotide at a time, with each nucleotide being added to the 3' end of the growing chain. The RNA polymerase moves along the DNA strand, unwinding it as it goes, and adding nucleotides to the RNA strand.

The process of transcription is highly regulated and can be influenced by a variety of factors, including the presence of specific proteins and the binding of regulatory molecules to the DNA. Once the RNA strand is complete, it is released from the DNA and can be further processed to produce a functional protein.

The role of RNA polymerase in this process is to read the DNA sequence and synthesize a complementary RNA strand. It is responsible for the accurate transcription of genetic information and is essential for the expression of genes. RNA polymerase is a complex enzyme that requires the assistance of other proteins and regulatory molecules to function properly. Its activity is tightly controlled to ensure that genes are expressed only when needed.

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