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What are the differences between DNA and RNA, and how do they function in the cell?

DNA and RNA differ in structure and function. DNA is the genetic material that stores and transmits genetic information, while RNA is involved in protein synthesis.

DNA is a double-stranded helix made up of nucleotides containing a sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base. The four nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. DNA replication occurs during cell division, where the two strands of DNA separate and serve as templates for the synthesis of new complementary strands.

RNA is a single-stranded molecule that is made up of nucleotides containing a sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base. The four nitrogenous bases in RNA are adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine. RNA is involved in protein synthesis, where it carries genetic information from DNA to ribosomes, where it is used to synthesize proteins.

There are three types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). mRNA carries genetic information from DNA to ribosomes, where it is used to synthesize proteins. tRNA carries amino acids to ribosomes, where they are used to synthesize proteins. rRNA is a component of ribosomes, where it helps to catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids.

In conclusion, DNA and RNA differ in structure and function. DNA is the genetic material that stores and transmits genetic information, while RNA is involved in protein synthesis. RNA is a single-stranded molecule that carries genetic information from DNA to ribosomes, where it is used to synthesize proteins. There are three types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA, each with a specific role in protein synthesis.

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