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What is gene expression and how is it controlled?

Gene expression is the process by which genetic information is used to create functional proteins.

Gene expression is a complex process that involves the transcription of DNA into RNA and the translation of RNA into proteins. The regulation of gene expression is critical for the proper development and function of cells and organisms. There are several mechanisms by which gene expression is controlled, including transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation, translational regulation, and post-translational regulation.

Transcriptional regulation involves the control of gene expression at the level of transcription, which is the process by which DNA is transcribed into RNA. This can be achieved through the binding of transcription factors to specific DNA sequences, which can either enhance or repress transcription.

Post-transcriptional regulation involves the control of gene expression after transcription has occurred. This can be achieved through the processing of RNA molecules, such as splicing and editing, which can affect the stability and function of the RNA.

Translational regulation involves the control of gene expression at the level of translation, which is the process by which RNA is translated into proteins. This can be achieved through the binding of regulatory molecules to the RNA or ribosome, which can either enhance or repress translation.

Post-translational regulation involves the control of gene expression after proteins have been synthesized. This can be achieved through the modification of proteins, such as phosphorylation and glycosylation, which can affect their activity and stability.

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