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What is the difference between transcription and translation?

Transcription is the process of copying DNA into RNA, while translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from RNA.

Transcription is the first step in protein synthesis, where a section of DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule. This process is carried out by RNA polymerase, which reads the DNA template and adds nucleotides to the growing RNA strand. The resulting RNA molecule is then processed and modified before it is transported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm.

Translation is the second step in protein synthesis, where the information encoded in the RNA molecule is used to synthesize a protein. This process takes place on ribosomes, which read the RNA sequence and use it to assemble a chain of amino acids in the correct order. The sequence of amino acids determines the structure and function of the protein.

While transcription and translation are separate processes, they are closely linked and dependent on each other. Without transcription, there would be no RNA molecules for translation to use, and without translation, the information in the RNA molecule would not be used to make proteins. Together, these processes are essential for the production of proteins, which are the building blocks of life.

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