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What is the role of ribosomes in translation?

Ribosomes are responsible for translating mRNA into proteins.

During translation, ribosomes read the sequence of codons on the mRNA and match them to the appropriate amino acids. This process requires the help of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which carry the amino acids to the ribosome. The ribosome then catalyses the formation of peptide bonds between the amino acids, creating a polypeptide chain.

Ribosomes are composed of two subunits, each made up of rRNA and proteins. The small subunit binds to the mRNA, while the large subunit catalyses the formation of peptide bonds. Ribosomes can be found free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, depending on whether the protein they are translating will be used within the cell or secreted outside of it.

The process of translation is highly regulated and can be influenced by various factors, such as the availability of amino acids and the presence of regulatory proteins. Mutations in the genes that code for ribosomal proteins or rRNA can lead to errors in translation and ultimately result in diseases such as cancer.

In summary, ribosomes play a crucial role in the process of translation by reading the sequence of codons on mRNA and catalysing the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids. They are composed of two subunits and can be found free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. The process of translation is highly regulated and can be influenced by various factors.

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