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What is the role of the ribosome in protein synthesis?

The ribosome is responsible for assembling amino acids into polypeptide chains during protein synthesis.

Protein synthesis is the process by which cells build proteins using genetic information encoded in DNA. This process involves two main stages: transcription and translation. During transcription, DNA is copied into RNA. The RNA then moves to the ribosome, where translation occurs.

Translation involves the assembly of amino acids into polypeptide chains, which eventually fold into functional proteins. The ribosome plays a crucial role in this process. It reads the genetic code carried by the RNA and uses it to assemble amino acids into polypeptide chains.

The ribosome is made up of two subunits, each of which contains ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins. The small subunit binds to the RNA, while the large subunit catalyses the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids.

The ribosome moves along the RNA molecule, reading the genetic code and adding amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain. The process continues until a stop codon is reached, at which point the ribosome releases the completed protein.

In summary, the ribosome is essential for protein synthesis. It reads the genetic code carried by RNA and uses it to assemble amino acids into polypeptide chains. Without ribosomes, cells would not be able to build the proteins necessary for life.

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