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Describe the differences between the acidic and basic hydrolysis in aqueous solutions.

Acidic and basic hydrolysis differ in the type of ions present in the aqueous solution.

In acidic hydrolysis, the aqueous solution contains an excess of H+ ions, which react with the water molecule to form hydronium ions (H3O+). These hydronium ions then react with the molecule being hydrolysed, breaking it down into its constituent parts. For example, in the hydrolysis of an ester, the H+ ions react with the ester to form a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.

In basic hydrolysis, the aqueous solution contains an excess of OH- ions, which react with the molecule being hydrolysed to break it down. For example, in the hydrolysis of an ester, the OH- ions react with the ester to form a carboxylate ion and an alcohol.

The rate of hydrolysis is affected by the pH of the solution. In acidic hydrolysis, the rate of hydrolysis increases as the pH decreases, as there are more H+ ions available to react with the molecule being hydrolysed. In basic hydrolysis, the rate of hydrolysis increases as the pH increases, as there are more OH- ions available to react with the molecule being hydrolysed.

Overall, acidic and basic hydrolysis are important chemical reactions that occur in aqueous solutions, and understanding their differences is crucial for understanding many biological processes.

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