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Describe the differences between the E1 and E2 elimination.

The E1 and E2 elimination reactions differ in the mechanism of proton loss and substrate requirements.

E1 elimination involves a two-step process where the leaving group departs first, forming a carbocation intermediate. The proton loss then occurs from the adjacent carbon, resulting in the formation of a double bond. E1 reactions require a tertiary or secondary substrate, a strong acid catalyst, and heat. The reaction rate is dependent on the concentration of the substrate and the catalyst.

E2 elimination is a one-step process where the leaving group and a proton are lost simultaneously. The reaction occurs in a single transition state, and the stereochemistry of the substrate is retained. E2 reactions require a primary or secondary substrate, a strong base catalyst, and heat. The reaction rate is dependent on the concentration of the substrate and the catalyst.

The major difference between E1 and E2 reactions is the mechanism of proton loss. E1 reactions involve a carbocation intermediate, while E2 reactions occur in a single transition state. Additionally, E1 reactions require a tertiary or secondary substrate, while E2 reactions can occur with a primary or secondary substrate. The choice of catalyst also differs, with E1 reactions requiring a strong acid and E2 reactions requiring a strong base.

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