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Describe the differences between the electronegativity of different elements and the polarity of their bonds.

The electronegativity of an element refers to its ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond, while the polarity of a bond refers to the distribution of electrons between two atoms in a bond.

Electronegativity is a measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons towards itself in a chemical bond. It is determined by factors such as the number of protons in the nucleus and the distance between the nucleus and the valence electrons. Elements with higher electronegativity values tend to attract electrons more strongly than those with lower values.

Polarity, on the other hand, refers to the distribution of electrons between two atoms in a bond. A bond can be nonpolar if the electrons are shared equally between the two atoms, or polar if the electrons are shared unequally. The polarity of a bond is determined by the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms in the bond.

The greater the difference in electronegativity between two atoms, the more polar the bond will be. For example, a bond between hydrogen and chlorine is polar because chlorine has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen. In contrast, a bond between two hydrogen atoms is nonpolar because the electronegativity values are the same.

In summary, electronegativity refers to an element's ability to attract electrons, while polarity refers to the distribution of electrons between two atoms in a bond. The greater the difference in electronegativity between two atoms, the more polar the bond will be.

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