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Describe the differences between the ion product and solubility product.

The ion product and solubility product are both measures of a substance's solubility, but they differ in their specific calculations and applications.

The ion product, also known as the reaction quotient, is a measure of the concentration of ions in a solution at a given point in time. It is calculated by multiplying the concentrations of the ions in the solution, each raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient. The ion product is used to determine whether a solution is at equilibrium or not, and can be compared to the solubility product to determine whether a precipitate will form.

The solubility product, on the other hand, is a measure of the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature and pressure. It is calculated by multiplying the concentrations of the ions in a saturated solution, each raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient. The solubility product is a constant value for a given substance at a given temperature, and can be used to predict the solubility of a substance in a particular solvent.

A-Level Chemistry Tutor Summary: The ion product and solubility product both relate to a substance's solubility. The ion product measures ion concentrations at any time, showing if a solution is in equilibrium. The solubility product shows the maximum solute amount dissolvable, being a constant for a substance at certain conditions. Knowing these helps predict if a solution will stay clear or form a precipitate.

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