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Describe the differences between the sp, sp² and sp³ hybridization in transition elements.

The sp, sp² and sp³ hybridization in transition elements differ in the number of hybrid orbitals formed.

Transition elements can form hybrid orbitals by mixing their s and p orbitals. The sp hybridization involves the mixing of one s and one p orbital to form two hybrid orbitals. This results in a linear geometry with a bond angle of 180°. Examples of transition elements that undergo sp hybridization include Be, B, and C.

The sp² hybridization involves the mixing of one s and two p orbitals to form three hybrid orbitals. This results in a trigonal planar geometry with a bond angle of 120°. Examples of transition elements that undergo sp² hybridization include N, O, and F.

The sp³ hybridization involves the mixing of one s and three p orbitals to form four hybrid orbitals. This results in a tetrahedral geometry with a bond angle of 109.5°. Examples of transition elements that undergo sp³ hybridization include C, Si, and Ge.

In summary, the sp, sp² and sp³ hybridization in transition elements differ in the number of hybrid orbitals formed, resulting in different geometries and bond angles. Understanding these hybridizations is important in predicting the properties and behaviour of transition elements in chemical reactions.

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