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Provide an example of the acidic and basic hydrolysis in aqueous solutions.

An example of acidic hydrolysis is the breakdown of an ester in the presence of an acid catalyst.

Acidic hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken down into its constituent parts by the addition of water in the presence of an acid catalyst. One example of this is the breakdown of an ester, which is a type of organic molecule that is commonly found in fats and oils. When an ester is exposed to an acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid, the ester bond is cleaved and the molecule is broken down into an alcohol and a carboxylic acid.

Basic hydrolysis, on the other hand, is a chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken down into its constituent parts by the addition of water in the presence of a base catalyst. One example of this is the breakdown of a peptide bond, which is a type of bond that links amino acids together in proteins. When a peptide bond is exposed to a base catalyst, such as sodium hydroxide, the bond is cleaved and the molecule is broken down into its constituent amino acids.

In both acidic and basic hydrolysis reactions, the addition of water is essential for the breakdown of the molecule. However, the type of catalyst used determines the specific mechanism by which the molecule is broken down. Acidic hydrolysis is typically used to break down esters and other organic molecules, while basic hydrolysis is used to break down peptide bonds and other types of chemical bonds in biological molecules.

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