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Provide an example of the boiling and melting points of different aldehydes and ketones.

The boiling and melting points of aldehydes and ketones vary depending on their molecular structure.

Aldehydes and ketones are both types of carbonyl compounds, which contain a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom. The boiling and melting points of these compounds are influenced by factors such as the size and shape of the molecule, the strength of intermolecular forces, and the presence of functional groups.

For example, formaldehyde (HCHO) has a boiling point of -19°C and a melting point of -118°C, while acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) has a boiling point of 20°C and a melting point of -123°C. This difference can be attributed to the fact that formaldehyde has a smaller and more symmetrical molecule, which allows for stronger intermolecular forces.

Similarly, the boiling and melting points of ketones such as acetone (CH3COCH3) and butanone (CH3COCH2CH3) also depend on their molecular structure. Acetone has a boiling point of 56°C and a melting point of -95°C, while butanone has a boiling point of 80°C and a melting point of -86°C. The larger size of butanone results in weaker intermolecular forces, which leads to a higher boiling point compared to acetone.

Overall, the boiling and melting points of aldehydes and ketones can provide insight into their physical properties and behaviour in different environments.

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