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Provide an example of the Pauling and Mulliken electronegativity.

The Pauling and Mulliken electronegativity scales are used to measure the relative attraction of atoms for electrons.

Electronegativity is a measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons towards itself in a covalent bond. The Pauling electronegativity scale is based on the concept of bond dissociation energy, which is the energy required to break a bond. The higher the bond dissociation energy, the more electronegative the atom. The Pauling scale ranges from 0.7 (for cesium) to 4.0 (for fluorine).

The Mulliken electronegativity scale is based on the average of the ionization energy and electron affinity of an atom. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom, while electron affinity is the energy released when an electron is added to an atom. The Mulliken scale ranges from 0.5 (for francium) to 3.98 (for fluorine).

Both scales are useful in predicting the polarity of a molecule and the direction of electron flow in a chemical reaction. However, the Pauling scale is more commonly used in chemistry, while the Mulliken scale is more commonly used in physics. It is important to note that electronegativity is a relative property, and the values on each scale are not absolute.

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