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Provide an example of the reactivity and oxidation state of group 3 elements.

Group 3 elements have varying reactivity and oxidation states.

Group 3 elements are located in the central block of the periodic table and include boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium. These elements have three valence electrons and tend to form compounds with a +3 oxidation state. However, they can also exhibit a +1 oxidation state in some compounds.

Boron is the least reactive of the group 3 elements and does not react with water or acids. Aluminium, on the other hand, is highly reactive and readily reacts with oxygen to form a protective oxide layer. Gallium, indium, and thallium are also highly reactive and can react with water and acids to form hydroxides and salts.

The reactivity of group 3 elements is influenced by their atomic radius and electronegativity. As the atomic radius increases down the group, the reactivity decreases. This is because the outermost electrons are further away from the nucleus and are therefore less attracted to other atoms. Electronegativity also decreases down the group, which means that the atoms are less likely to attract electrons and form bonds.

In summary, group 3 elements have varying reactivity and oxidation states. Boron is the least reactive, while aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium are highly reactive. The reactivity is influenced by the atomic radius and electronegativity of the elements.

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