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Provide an example of the surface tension of different liquids and their intermolecular forces.

Surface tension is the tendency of a liquid to minimize its surface area.

The surface tension of a liquid is determined by its intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are the attractive forces between molecules. The stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the surface tension of the liquid.

For example, water has a high surface tension due to its strong hydrogen bonding between molecules. This is why water droplets form a spherical shape, as the surface tension pulls the water molecules together to minimize the surface area.

In contrast, liquids with weaker intermolecular forces have lower surface tension. For instance, ethanol has weaker intermolecular forces than water, resulting in a lower surface tension. This is why ethanol droplets spread out more on a surface compared to water droplets.

Another example is mercury, which has a very high surface tension due to its strong metallic bonding. This is why mercury droplets form perfect spheres, as the surface tension is so strong that it overcomes gravity.

In summary, the surface tension of a liquid is determined by the strength of its intermolecular forces. The stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the surface tension of the liquid.

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