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What is the Born-Haber cycle and how does it relate to the formation of ionic compounds?

The Born-Haber cycle is a series of steps that explains the formation of ionic compounds.

Ionic compounds are formed when a metal reacts with a non-metal. The Born-Haber cycle is a way of understanding the energy changes that occur during this process. It is named after Max Born and Fritz Haber, who developed the concept in the early 20th century.

The cycle starts with the formation of gaseous atoms of the metal and non-metal. These atoms are then ionized to form gaseous ions. The next step is the formation of a solid ionic compound from the gaseous ions. This process releases energy, known as the lattice energy.

Other steps in the cycle include the formation of the metal and non-metal ions from their respective elements, the dissociation of the ionic compound into its constituent ions, and the formation of the gaseous molecules from the constituent atoms.

The Born-Haber cycle is a useful tool for predicting the stability of ionic compounds and understanding the factors that influence their formation. It can also be used to calculate the enthalpy of formation of an ionic compound, which is a measure of the energy released or absorbed during the formation of the compound.

Overall, the Born-Haber cycle provides a comprehensive picture of the energy changes that occur during the formation of ionic compounds and is an important concept in the study of chemistry.

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