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What is the mechanism of electrophilic addition and how does it relate to alkenes?

Electrophilic addition is a reaction mechanism where an electrophile attacks a double bond in an alkene.

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond. This double bond is a region of high electron density and can attract electrophiles, which are electron-deficient species that seek to gain electrons. Electrophilic addition reactions involve the addition of an electrophile to the double bond, breaking the pi bond and forming two new sigma bonds.

The mechanism of electrophilic addition involves three main steps: (1) attack of the electrophile on the pi bond, (2) formation of a carbocation intermediate, and (3) nucleophilic attack by a species such as a solvent or a halide ion. The first step is the rate-determining step, meaning that it is the slowest step and determines the overall rate of the reaction.

Electrophilic addition reactions are important in organic chemistry because they allow for the synthesis of a wide range of compounds. For example, alkenes can be converted to alcohols, halides, or other functional groups through electrophilic addition reactions. These reactions are also used in the production of plastics, pharmaceuticals, and other industrial chemicals.

In conclusion, electrophilic addition is a reaction mechanism that involves the addition of an electrophile to a carbon-carbon double bond in an alkene. This mechanism is important in organic chemistry because it allows for the synthesis of a wide range of compounds and is used in the production of many industrial chemicals.

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