### Need help from an expert?

The world’s top online tutoring provider trusted by students, parents, and schools globally.

A binary indexed tree (BIT) in data structures is used for efficient range queries and updates.

A binary indexed tree, also known as a Fenwick tree, is a data structure that provides a way to perform range queries and updates in logarithmic time. It is particularly useful in scenarios where you need to frequently update elements and calculate prefix sums in an array of numbers.

The BIT is an array where each element is responsible for storing the sum of a range of elements in the original array. The range is determined by the binary representation of the index. For example, if the binary representation of the index ends in a string of zeros, the range will be larger, while if it ends in a string of ones, the range will be smaller. This property allows us to perform both updates and queries in O(log n) time, where n is the size of the array.

To understand how a BIT works, let's consider an example. Suppose we have an array of 8 elements. The BIT for this array would also have 8 elements, each storing a sum of elements from the original array. The first element of the BIT stores the first element of the original array, the second element of the BIT stores the sum of the first two elements of the original array, the third element of the BIT stores the third element of the original array, and so on.

When we want to update an element in the original array, we also update the corresponding elements in the BIT. For example, if we want to update the third element in the original array, we would update the third element and all the elements in the BIT that include the third element in their range.

Similarly, when we want to perform a range query, we can do so by adding up certain elements in the BIT. For example, if we want to find the sum of the first five elements in the original array, we would add the fifth element and the fourth element in the BIT.

In conclusion, a binary indexed tree is a powerful tool in data structures that allows us to perform range queries and updates efficiently. It is particularly useful in scenarios where these operations need to be performed frequently.

Study and Practice for Free

Trusted by 100,000+ Students Worldwide

Achieve Top Grades in your Exams with our Free Resources.

Practice Questions, Study Notes, and Past Exam Papers for all Subjects!

The world’s top online tutoring provider trusted by students, parents, and schools globally.

Loading...

Loading...