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Heisenberg's uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to simultaneously measure the position and momentum of a particle with absolute accuracy.

This principle arises from the wave-particle duality of matter, where particles can exhibit both wave-like and particle-like behaviour. The position of a particle can be determined by measuring the wavelength of its associated wave, while its momentum can be determined by measuring the frequency of the wave. However, the act of measuring one property necessarily disturbs the other property, leading to uncertainty in the measurement.

The uncertainty principle has important implications in quantum mechanics, where it limits the precision with which we can know the behaviour of particles at the atomic and subatomic level. It also has practical applications, such as in the design of electron microscopes and in the development of quantum cryptography.

Despite its limitations, the uncertainty principle has been experimentally verified and is a fundamental principle of modern physics. It highlights the limitations of classical physics and the need for a new framework to describe the behaviour of particles at the quantum level.

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