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Explain the concept of wave diffraction.

Wave diffraction is the bending of waves around obstacles or through openings.

When a wave encounters an obstacle or an opening, it can either pass through it or bend around it. The amount of bending depends on the wavelength of the wave and the size of the obstacle or opening. If the obstacle or opening is much larger than the wavelength, the wave will pass through it without bending. However, if the obstacle or opening is comparable in size to the wavelength, the wave will bend around it.

Diffraction can be observed in various types of waves, including sound waves, water waves, and electromagnetic waves. For example, when sound waves encounter a doorway, they can diffract around the edges of the doorway and spread out into the next room. Similarly, when light waves encounter a narrow slit, they can diffract and create a pattern of bright and dark bands on a screen behind the slit.

The phenomenon of diffraction is important in many areas of physics, including optics, acoustics, and radio communication. It can be used to create diffraction gratings, which are used to separate light into its component colours, or to focus sound waves in a particular direction. Diffraction can also cause interference patterns, which can be used to study the properties of waves and the nature of matter.

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