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What is simple harmonic motion and how is it characterized?

Simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement.

Simple harmonic motion is a type of oscillatory motion where an object moves back and forth around its equilibrium position. The motion is called "simple" because the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement from the equilibrium position. This means that the force is strongest when the displacement is greatest, and weakest when the displacement is zero. The motion is "harmonic" because it follows a sinusoidal pattern, with the displacement, velocity, and acceleration all varying sinusoidally with time.

Simple harmonic motion can be characterized by several parameters, including amplitude, period, frequency, and angular frequency. The amplitude is the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position, while the period is the time it takes for one complete oscillation. The frequency is the number of oscillations per unit time, and is the reciprocal of the period. The angular frequency is the rate of change of the angle of the oscillation with respect to time, and is equal to 2π times the frequency.

Simple harmonic motion is found in many physical systems, including springs, pendulums, and waves. It is an important concept in physics and engineering, and is used in the design of many mechanical and electrical systems. Understanding simple harmonic motion is essential for students of physics, as it provides a foundation for the study of more complex systems.

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