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Resistivity is a material property that measures the resistance per unit length and cross-sectional area.

Resistance is a measure of how much a material opposes the flow of electric current. It is defined as the ratio of voltage to current in a circuit. The unit of resistance is the ohm (Ω).

Resistivity, on the other hand, is a material property that measures the resistance per unit length and cross-sectional area. It is a fundamental property of a material and is independent of its shape and size. The unit of resistivity is the ohm-metre (Ωm).

The resistivity of a material depends on its composition, temperature, and other factors. For example, metals have low resistivity, while insulators have high resistivity. The resistivity of a material can be measured using a four-point probe technique.

Resistance and resistivity are related by the formula R = ρL/A, where R is the resistance, ρ is the resistivity, L is the length of the material, and A is its cross-sectional area. This formula shows that resistance increases with length and decreases with cross-sectional area.

In summary, resistance is a measure of how much a material opposes the flow of electric current, while resistivity is a material property that measures the resistance per unit length and cross-sectional area. Understanding the difference between these two concepts is important in the study of electrical circuits and materials science.

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