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Capacitors in series add reciprocally, while capacitors in parallel add directly.

When capacitors are connected in series, the total capacitance is less than any of the individual capacitors. This is because the voltage across each capacitor is the same, but the charge on each capacitor is different. The charge on the capacitors is directly proportional to their capacitance, so the capacitor with the smallest capacitance will have the least charge. This means that the total charge stored by the capacitors is less than the charge stored by any individual capacitor. As capacitance is directly proportional to charge, the total capacitance is less than any individual capacitor.

When capacitors are connected in parallel, the total capacitance is the sum of the individual capacitances. This is because the voltage across each capacitor is the same, and the charge on each capacitor is the same. The total charge stored by the capacitors is the sum of the charge stored by each individual capacitor. As capacitance is directly proportional to charge, the total capacitance is the sum of the individual capacitances.

Capacitors in series and parallel are commonly used in electronic circuits to store and release electrical energy. Understanding the principles of capacitors in series and parallel is essential for designing and analysing these circuits.

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