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You calculate the volume of gases in a mixture by using the ideal gas law and the mole fraction of each gas.

The ideal gas law states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the temperature, and inversely proportional to the pressure. This is expressed as PV=nRT, where P is the pressure, V is the volume, n is the number of moles, R is the ideal gas constant, and T is the temperature.

To find the volume of a specific gas in a mixture, you first need to know the mole fraction of that gas. The mole fraction is the ratio of the number of moles of a particular gas to the total number of moles of all gases in the mixture. For example, if a mixture contains 2 moles of gas A and 3 moles of gas B, the mole fraction of gas A is 2/(2+3) = 0.4.

Once you know the mole fraction, you can use the ideal gas law to calculate the volume of that gas. If you know the total volume of the gas mixture, you can multiply this by the mole fraction to find the volume of the specific gas. For example, if the total volume of the mixture in the previous example is 10 litres, the volume of gas A is 0.4 x 10 = 4 litres.

Remember, this method assumes that the gases behave ideally, which is a good approximation under many conditions, but not all. Real gases can deviate from ideal behaviour under high pressures or low temperatures.

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