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Correlation shows a relationship between two variables, while causation indicates that one variable directly affects the other.

In graphs, correlation is when two variables appear to move together. For example, if you plot the number of ice creams sold and the temperature on a graph, you might see that as the temperature increases, ice cream sales also increase. This suggests a correlation because both variables change in a similar pattern. However, this does not mean that higher temperatures cause more ice cream sales directly; there could be other factors involved, like holidays or school breaks.

Causation, on the other hand, means that one variable directly influences the other. For instance, if you water a plant (variable one), it will grow (variable two). In this case, watering the plant causes it to grow. When looking at graphs, causation is harder to prove because you need to show that changes in one variable directly result in changes in the other, without any other factors influencing the outcome.

To determine causation, you often need more than just a graph. You might need experiments or additional data to show that one variable is directly affecting the other. For example, if you wanted to prove that studying more hours causes better exam results, you would need to control other factors like the difficulty of the exam or the student's prior knowledge.

In summary, while correlation can be easily spotted in graphs as a pattern or trend between two variables, causation requires more evidence to show that one variable is directly responsible for changes in the other. Understanding the difference is crucial in geography and other sciences to avoid making incorrect assumptions about how variables interact.

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