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Work done on an object changes its kinetic energy by transferring energy to or from the object.

When you do work on an object, you apply a force over a distance, which transfers energy to the object. This energy transfer can increase or decrease the object's kinetic energy, depending on the direction of the force relative to the object's motion. If the force is in the same direction as the object's motion, the kinetic energy increases. Conversely, if the force is in the opposite direction, the kinetic energy decreases.

The relationship between work done and kinetic energy is described by the work-energy principle. This principle states that the work done on an object is equal to the change in its kinetic energy. Mathematically, this can be expressed as:

\[ \text{Work Done} = \Delta KE = KE_{\text{final}} - KE_{\text{initial}} \]

Where \( KE \) stands for kinetic energy. Kinetic energy itself is given by the formula:

\[ KE = \frac{1}{2}mv^2 \]

Here, \( m \) is the mass of the object and \( v \) is its velocity. So, when work is done on an object, it changes the velocity of the object, thereby changing its kinetic energy.

For example, imagine pushing a stationary car. When you apply a force and move the car, you are doing work on it. This work increases the car's velocity, and thus its kinetic energy. On the other hand, if you apply the brakes, you are doing negative work, which decreases the car's velocity and its kinetic energy.

Understanding this concept is crucial in physics as it helps explain how forces and energy interact to influence the motion of objects. Whether it's a car accelerating on a road or a ball being thrown, the work done on these objects directly affects their kinetic energy and, consequently, their motion.

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