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Leaf nodes in a tree are determined as the nodes that do not have any children.

In a tree data structure, each element is called a node. The first node is called the root. If this node connects to other nodes, these are called its children. Nodes that do not have any children are called leaf nodes or external nodes, while nodes which have at least one child are called internal nodes.

To determine the leaf nodes in a tree, you need to traverse the tree. Tree traversal is the process of visiting each node in the tree exactly once in some systematic order. There are several ways to do this, including depth-first search (DFS) and breadth-first search (BFS). DFS explores as far as possible along each branch before backtracking, while BFS explores all the neighbours at the present depth before moving on to nodes at the next depth level.

During the traversal, you check each node to see if it has any children. If a node does not have any children, it is a leaf node. In a binary tree, a node is a leaf node if both the left and right child of a node are null. In a general tree, a node is a leaf node if the list of its children is empty.

For example, consider a binary tree with nodes labelled 1 to 7, where 1 is the root, 2 and 3 are children of 1, 4 and 5 are children of 2, and 6 and 7 are children of 3. In this tree, the leaf nodes are 4, 5, 6, and 7, because these nodes do not have any children.

In conclusion, determining the leaf nodes in a tree involves traversing the tree and checking each node to see if it has any children. If a node does not have any children, it is a leaf node.

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