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Population size is estimated using quadrats by sampling a small area and extrapolating the data to the entire habitat.

Quadrats are square frames, often 1m x 1m, used in ecology to isolate a standard unit of area for study of the distribution of an item over a large area. To estimate population size using quadrats, you first need to randomly place your quadrat in different locations within the habitat you are studying. This is to ensure that your sample is representative of the entire population.

Once the quadrat is placed, count the number of individuals of the species you are studying within the quadrat. Repeat this process multiple times in different locations within the habitat to get a good sample size. The more quadrats you use and the more times you repeat the process, the more accurate your estimate will be.

After you have collected your data, calculate the average number of individuals per quadrat. This gives you the density of the population in your sample area. To estimate the total population size, multiply the average density by the total area of the habitat. Understanding different `population distribution`

patterns can help in choosing the right areas for placing quadrats.

For example, if you have an average of 5 individuals per quadrat, and your total area is 1000m² (equivalent to 1000 quadrats), your estimated population size would be 5 x 1000 = 5000 individuals.

To ensure the accuracy and reliability of your data, it's crucial to employ proper `fieldwork techniques`

while conducting such surveys. Moreover, the results should be analysed with sound `statistical analysis`

methods to validate the findings.** IB ESS Tutor Summary:** To estimate population size using quadrats, place the square frame randomly in the habitat, count the species inside, and repeat in different spots. Calculate the average number found per quadrat, then multiply by the habitat's total area for an estimate. This method assumes even distribution and is an approximation, with accuracy improving as you sample more quadrats.

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