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Torque is a measure of the force that can cause an object to rotate about an axis. It is calculated by multiplying the force applied by the distance from the axis.

Torque, also known as moment or moment of force, is a fundamental concept in physics. It is a measure of how much a force acting on an object causes that object to rotate. The object rotates about an axis, which is the centre of rotation. The distance from the axis at which the force is applied is called the lever arm or moment arm. The greater the distance from the axis, the greater the torque, and vice versa.

Torque is calculated using the formula: Torque = Force x Distance. The force is measured in newtons (N), the distance in metres (m), and therefore, the torque is measured in newton-metres (Nm). It's important to note that the force and the distance must be perpendicular to each other for this formula to work. If the force is applied at an angle, only the component of the force that acts perpendicular to the lever arm counts.

In practical terms, you can think of torque as the effectiveness of a force to cause rotation. For example, when you use a wrench to turn a bolt, the amount of torque you apply depends on how much force you use and how far from the bolt you apply that force. If you hold the wrench further from the bolt, you can turn the bolt more easily, because you are applying the force at a greater distance, thus increasing the torque.

Understanding torque is crucial in many areas of physics and engineering, including mechanical engineering, civil engineering, and even in biological systems. It helps us understand how machines work, how buildings stay up, and how our bodies move.

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