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How did feudalism in England compare to that in France during the 12th century?

Feudalism in 12th century England was more centralised and organised than in France, which was more fragmented and localised.

In the 12th century, England was under the rule of the Plantagenet kings, who had a strong central authority. The English feudal system was highly organised, with a clear hierarchy of power. At the top was the king, who granted lands known as fiefs to his most important nobles, the barons. In return, the barons swore an oath of fealty to the king, promising to provide him with military service. The barons then granted parts of their lands to knights, who also swore an oath of fealty and provided military service. This created a clear chain of command, with the king at the top and the knights at the bottom.

In contrast, feudalism in France during the 12th century was more fragmented. The French king had less control over his nobles than the English king did. Many French nobles, known as lords, held their lands directly from the king and owed him military service. However, they also had the right to grant parts of their lands to vassals, who swore an oath of fealty to them and provided them with military service. This created a more complex and less centralised system, with multiple layers of power and loyalty.

Another key difference was the role of the Church. In England, the Church was a major landowner and played a significant role in the feudal system. Bishops and abbots held lands from the king and owed him military service, just like the barons. In France, the Church also owned land and had vassals, but it was less integrated into the feudal system and had a more independent role.

In summary, while both England and France had feudal systems in the 12th century, they were structured differently. England's system was more centralised and organised, with a clear hierarchy of power. France's system was more fragmented and localised, with multiple layers of power and loyalty. The role of the Church also differed in the two countries.

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