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How did Filipino rebels resist Spanish and later American rule?

Filipino rebels resisted Spanish and American rule through armed revolts, guerrilla warfare, and the establishment of revolutionary governments.

The resistance against Spanish rule began as early as the 16th century, shortly after the Spanish colonisation of the Philippines. The most notable of these early revolts was the Dagohoy Rebellion, which lasted for 85 years. However, the most significant resistance against the Spanish was the Philippine Revolution, which began in 1896. Led by the Katipunan, a secret society founded by Andres Bonifacio, the revolutionaries fought for independence through armed conflict. The revolution was marked by significant battles such as the Battle of Imus and the Siege of Baler. The revolutionaries also established the First Philippine Republic, a revolutionary government led by Emilio Aguinaldo.

The resistance against American rule, on the other hand, began after the Spanish-American War when the United States took control of the Philippines. This period, known as the Philippine-American War, saw Filipino revolutionaries continue their fight for independence. The war was characterised by guerrilla warfare, with Filipino forces using hit-and-run tactics against the better-equipped American troops. The war also saw the establishment of the Second Philippine Republic, another revolutionary government, this time led by Emilio Aguinaldo.

In addition to armed conflict, the Filipino resistance also used non-violent means. During the Spanish period, the Propaganda Movement sought to reform the Spanish colonial government through peaceful means. The movement, led by intellectuals like Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. Del Pilar, used literature and other forms of media to expose the abuses of the Spanish government and to advocate for equal rights for Filipinos. During the American period, the resistance also included peaceful protests and the establishment of political parties advocating for independence.

In conclusion, the Filipino resistance against Spanish and American rule was marked by a combination of armed conflict, guerrilla warfare, the establishment of revolutionary governments, and non-violent protests. Despite the challenges, the resistance persisted, ultimately leading to the Philippines' independence in 1946.

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