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How did French society change from 1815 to 1914?

From 1815 to 1914, French society underwent significant changes, marked by industrialisation, urbanisation, and shifts in political power.

The period from 1815 to 1914, often referred to as the 'long 19th century', was a time of profound transformation in French society. One of the most significant changes was the shift from an agrarian to an industrial economy. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the late 18th century, gained momentum in France during the 19th century. This led to the growth of factories and industries, particularly in the textile, iron and steel sectors. As a result, there was a significant increase in the working-class population, leading to the rise of the proletariat. This shift also led to the decline of the traditional artisan class, as mass-produced goods became more common.

Another significant change was the process of urbanisation. The growth of industries led to a massive influx of people into cities in search of work. Paris, in particular, underwent significant transformation under the leadership of Baron Haussmann, who initiated a massive urban renewal project. This led to the creation of wide boulevards, parks, and new buildings, changing the face of the city. However, this rapid urbanisation also led to overcrowding, poor living conditions, and social inequality, which became major social issues.

The period also saw significant shifts in political power. The French Revolution of 1789 had already shaken the traditional monarchy, but the 19th century saw a series of political changes, including the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, the establishment of the July Monarchy, the Second Republic, the Second Empire under Napoleon III, and finally the establishment of the Third Republic in 1870. These changes reflected the ongoing struggle between monarchists, republicans, and Bonapartists for control of the French state.

Moreover, the period was marked by the rise of new social and political ideologies. The growth of the working class led to the rise of socialism and trade unionism. The Dreyfus Affair, a political scandal that divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s, highlighted the issues of anti-Semitism and the power of the military in French society. The period also saw the rise of secularism, culminating in the 1905 law separating church and state.

In conclusion, the period from 1815 to 1914 was a time of significant change in French society, marked by industrialisation

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