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How did the Battle of Castillon in 1453 end the Hundred Years War?

The Battle of Castillon in 1453 marked the end of the Hundred Years War by securing French victory over the English.

The Hundred Years War, a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453, was primarily fought between the Kingdoms of England and France. The Battle of Castillon, the last major battle of this war, was a decisive victory for the French and marked the end of English territorial ambitions in France.

The battle took place on 17 July 1453 near the town of Castillon-sur-Dordogne in southwestern France. The English, led by Shrewsbury, were attempting to relieve the French siege of Bordeaux, a city loyal to England. The French, under the command of Jean Bureau, had constructed a fortified artillery camp, a novel tactic at the time, which proved to be a game-changer in the battle. The English, underestimating the power of the French artillery, launched a frontal assault and were decimated.

The death of Shrewsbury and the defeat of the English forces at Castillon led to the fall of Bordeaux and the Aquitaine region to the French. This was a significant blow to the English as Aquitaine had been under English control since the Angevin Empire in the 12th century. The loss effectively ended English political and military influence on the continent, marking the end of the Hundred Years War.

The Battle of Castillon is also significant as it demonstrated the effectiveness of artillery on the battlefield, heralding a new era in warfare. The French victory confirmed the shift in military power from England to France, and the end of the war allowed France to consolidate its territories and emerge as a dominant power in Europe.

In conclusion, the Battle of Castillon in 1453 ended the Hundred Years War by securing a decisive French victory, leading to the loss of English territories in France and marking a shift in European power dynamics.

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