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How did the Green Revolution transform India in the 1960s?

The Green Revolution transformed India in the 1960s by significantly increasing agricultural productivity and reducing food scarcity.

The Green Revolution was a period of radical change in Indian agriculture, marked by the introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of fertilisers and irrigation. It was initiated to address the widespread food shortages in India and to reduce the country's dependence on imported grains. The transformation was remarkable, as it led to a substantial increase in the production of major crops such as wheat, rice, and maize.

The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds was a key aspect of the Green Revolution. These seeds, primarily for wheat and rice, were genetically modified to be more resistant to diseases and pests, and to produce larger yields. The use of these seeds, in combination with modern agricultural techniques, resulted in a significant increase in crop yields. For instance, wheat production in India increased from 10 million tonnes in the early 1960s to 55 million tonnes by the late 1970s.

Another significant aspect of the Green Revolution was the increased use of fertilisers and irrigation. The use of chemical fertilisers was promoted to enhance soil fertility and increase crop yields. Similarly, the expansion of irrigation infrastructure enabled farmers to cultivate crops throughout the year, thereby increasing productivity. The government also provided subsidies for fertilisers and irrigation, making them more accessible to farmers.

The Green Revolution also had significant socio-economic impacts. It led to the commercialisation of agriculture, with a shift from subsistence to commercial farming. This resulted in increased income for farmers and contributed to rural development. However, it also led to increased income disparities, as wealthier farmers were better able to afford the new technologies.

In conclusion, the Green Revolution transformed India in the 1960s by significantly increasing agricultural productivity. This not only reduced food scarcity but also led to socio-economic changes, including the commercialisation of agriculture and increased income disparities.

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