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How did the Mughal Empire handle succession and internal conflict?

The Mughal Empire handled succession through primogeniture, but internal conflicts were often resolved through power struggles and warfare.

The Mughal Empire, which ruled most of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh from the 16th to the 19th centuries, had a complex system of succession. Theoretically, the empire followed the principle of primogeniture, where the eldest son would inherit the throne. However, in practice, this was not always the case. Succession was often a violent and chaotic process, with potential heirs battling each other for the throne.

The Mughal emperors did not establish a clear law of succession, which led to numerous fratricidal conflicts. Upon the death of an emperor, his sons, and sometimes other relatives, would engage in a war of succession. The victor of these wars would then claim the throne. This lack of a clear succession policy led to a great deal of instability and conflict within the empire.

Internal conflicts within the Mughal Empire were not limited to succession disputes. The empire was vast and diverse, with a wide range of ethnic, religious, and linguistic groups. This diversity often led to internal tensions and conflicts. The Mughal emperors used a variety of strategies to manage these conflicts. They often sought to balance power among different groups, appointing leaders from various ethnic and religious communities to high-ranking positions. They also used marriage alliances to secure loyalty and maintain peace.

However, these strategies were not always successful, and the empire was frequently plagued by rebellions and uprisings. In response to these challenges, the Mughal emperors often resorted to military force. They maintained large armies and were willing to use them to quell rebellions and maintain control over their vast territories.

In conclusion, the Mughal Empire's handling of succession and internal conflict was characterised by a combination of political manoeuvring, strategic alliances, and military force. The lack of a clear succession policy led to frequent power struggles, while the empire's diversity and size resulted in a range of internal conflicts. The Mughal emperors' responses to these challenges were varied, but they often relied on a balance of power, strategic alliances, and the use of military force.

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