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What key events marked the second phase of the Hundred Years War?

The second phase of the Hundred Years War was marked by key events such as the Battle of Agincourt and the Treaty of Troyes.

The second phase of the Hundred Years War, also known as the Lancastrian War, began in 1415 and lasted until 1453. This phase was characterised by the dominance of the English, led by King Henry V and later his son, Henry VI. The Battle of Agincourt in 1415 was a significant event in this phase. The English, despite being heavily outnumbered, managed to defeat the French due to their superior tactics and the effective use of the longbow. This victory significantly boosted the morale of the English and marked the beginning of their dominance in the war.

In 1420, the Treaty of Troyes was signed, another key event in this phase. This treaty was a significant victory for the English as it recognised Henry V as the heir to the French throne, effectively disinheriting the Dauphin, Charles VII. The treaty also arranged for Henry V to marry Catherine of Valois, the daughter of King Charles VI of France, further strengthening the English claim to the French throne.

However, the tide began to turn in favour of the French with the appearance of Joan of Arc in 1429. Her leadership and inspiration led to several French victories, including the lifting of the Siege of Orleans. Joan's capture and execution by the English in 1431 did not halt the French resurgence, and the war continued for another two decades.

The second phase of the Hundred Years War was also marked by the Congress of Arras in 1435, where the Duke of Burgundy, a key ally of the English, switched sides to support the French. This was a significant blow to the English and marked the beginning of their decline in the war. The war finally ended in 1453 with the Battle of Castillon, which saw the French recapture Bordeaux, effectively ending English territorial presence in France. This marked the end of the second phase and the Hundred Years War as a whole.

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