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What led to the fall of Saigon in 1975?

The fall of Saigon in 1975 was primarily due to the North Vietnamese military's successful offensive against South Vietnam.

The fall of Saigon, marking the end of the Vietnam War, was a culmination of a series of military and political events. The North Vietnamese military, backed by the Soviet Union and China, launched a massive offensive against South Vietnam in early 1975. This offensive, known as the Ho Chi Minh Campaign, was a decisive factor leading to the fall of Saigon.

The North Vietnamese forces were well-prepared and highly motivated, having been bolstered by years of guerrilla warfare and a strong ideological commitment to reunification. They were able to exploit the weaknesses of the South Vietnamese army, which was demoralised and plagued by corruption, poor leadership, and a lack of popular support. The withdrawal of American troops in 1973, following the Paris Peace Accords, had left South Vietnam vulnerable to the North's superior military power.

The North's offensive was swift and brutal. They captured key cities and military bases, effectively cutting off Saigon from the rest of the country. The South Vietnamese government, led by President Nguyen Van Thieu, was unable to mount an effective resistance and was further weakened by internal divisions and a lack of support from the United States.

By late April 1975, the North Vietnamese forces had surrounded Saigon. The city's fall was inevitable. On 30 April, North Vietnamese tanks rolled into the city, effectively ending the war and leading to the reunification of Vietnam under communist rule.

The fall of Saigon was a significant event in the Cold War, demonstrating the limits of American power and influence. It also marked a turning point in Vietnam's history, leading to a period of economic hardship and political repression under the communist regime. However, it also paved the way for Vietnam's eventual economic liberalisation and integration into the global economy.

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