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What led to the Third Anglo-Afghan War?

The Third Anglo-Afghan War was primarily triggered by Afghanistan's desire for independence from British influence and control.

The Third Anglo-Afghan War, also known as the Third Afghan War, took place in 1919. The main cause of this conflict was Afghanistan's desire to regain full sovereignty and free itself from British influence and control. This desire was fuelled by the political changes that occurred in the region during and after World War I.

During World War I, the British had been heavily involved in fighting on multiple fronts, which had stretched their resources thin. This situation was perceived as an opportunity by Amanullah Khan, the then Emir of Afghanistan, who believed that the British would be unable to mount a strong response to an Afghan uprising. Amanullah Khan was a reformist leader who was keen on modernising Afghanistan and reducing foreign influence, particularly that of the British.

In addition to this, there was a significant change in British policy towards Afghanistan after World War I. The British had previously maintained a policy of subsidising the Afghan government in return for control over its foreign affairs. However, after the war, the British were keen on reducing their overseas commitments and were unwilling to continue the subsidies. This change in policy was not well received in Afghanistan and contributed to the growing anti-British sentiment.

Furthermore, the end of World War I had led to significant political changes in the region. The Ottoman Empire, which had been a major Muslim power, was disintegrating. This created a power vacuum and a sense of uncertainty among the Muslim nations in the region. Amanullah Khan saw this as an opportunity to assert Afghanistan's independence and establish it as a major Muslim power.

In conclusion, the Third Anglo-Afghan War was primarily caused by Afghanistan's desire for independence from British influence and control. This desire was fuelled by the political changes that occurred in the region during and after World War I, as well as changes in British policy towards Afghanistan.

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