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What measures did Mao use to consolidate power by 1961?

Mao consolidated power by 1961 through the Great Leap Forward, the Anti-Rightist Campaign, and the establishment of communes.

Mao Zedong, the leader of the People's Republic of China, used a variety of measures to consolidate his power by 1961. One of the most significant was the Great Leap Forward, a campaign launched in 1958 aimed at rapidly transforming China from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialisation and collectivisation. The Great Leap Forward was intended to increase China's economic production, particularly in the areas of agriculture and industry. However, it resulted in a severe famine that caused millions of deaths, which Mao used to further consolidate his power by blaming the disaster on local officials and purging them from the party.

Another measure Mao used to consolidate his power was the Anti-Rightist Campaign, which was launched in 1957. This campaign was aimed at purging alleged "rightists" within the Communist Party of China and the broader society. The campaign was used to suppress those who were critical of Mao's policies and the direction of the Communist Party, effectively silencing opposition and consolidating Mao's control over the party and the country.

Mao also consolidated his power through the establishment of communes. These were essentially large agricultural communities where land and resources were shared, and they were intended to replace the traditional family structure with a collective one. The communes were a key part of Mao's vision for a socialist China, and they served to further consolidate his power by breaking down traditional social structures and replacing them with ones that were more conducive to his control.

In addition to these measures, Mao also used propaganda to promote his image and ideology, and he maintained a cult of personality that portrayed him as the infallible leader of the Chinese people. This helped to solidify his control over the country and ensure that his power remained unchallenged.

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