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What were the main features of Sino-Soviet relations?

The main features of Sino-Soviet relations were ideological differences, territorial disputes, and power rivalry.

Sino-Soviet relations, referring to the diplomatic and political relationship between the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union, were characterised by a complex interplay of ideological differences, territorial disputes, and power rivalry. These relations underwent significant changes from the 1940s to the 1990s, with periods of close alliance and bitter hostility.

Ideological differences were a key feature of Sino-Soviet relations. Both nations were communist, but they had different interpretations of Marxism-Leninism. The Soviet Union, under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev, pursued a policy of 'peaceful coexistence' with capitalist countries, which Mao Zedong, the Chinese leader, saw as a betrayal of communist ideology. Mao advocated for continuous revolution and saw the Soviet approach as revisionist. These ideological differences led to public criticisms and denunciations, straining their relationship.

Territorial disputes also played a significant role in Sino-Soviet relations. The two nations shared a long border, and there were several areas of contention. The most notable of these was the Ussuri River dispute, which led to a brief but intense border conflict in 1969. These territorial disputes were not just about land but were also tied to issues of national pride and sovereignty.

Power rivalry was another major feature of Sino-Soviet relations. Both China and the Soviet Union aspired to be the leader of the global communist movement. This rivalry was exacerbated by the ideological differences and territorial disputes. The Soviet Union's decision to withdraw its advisors and technicians from China in the early 1960s, as well as its refusal to share nuclear technology, further fuelled this rivalry.

In conclusion, Sino-Soviet relations were marked by ideological differences, territorial disputes, and power rivalry. These features led to a complex and often tense relationship, with periods of alliance and hostility. Understanding these features is crucial to understanding the dynamics of the Cold War and the global political landscape in the second half of the 20th century.

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