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Mastering the Fundamentals of A-Level Physics

Mastering the Fundamentals of A-Level Physics

6 min Read|February 07 2024
|Written by:

Dr Rahil Sachak-Patwa


As a student preparing for A-Level Physics assessments, you're likely experiencing an exciting blend of nervousness and thrill. On one hand, you're aware that grasping the essential principles of physics will furnish you with an insightful comprehension of the functioning of the world and unleash numerous prospects for your future. On the other hand, the thought of needing to grasp and comprehend such a vast amount of material in a limited timeframe may leave you feeling overwhelmed.

Fear not, for we've got you! This article will delve into the most crucial concepts of A-Level Physics and provide some tips and tricks for mastering them. By the conclusion, you'll have a clearer picture of what to anticipate from your studies and a more confident mindset in approaching your exams.

1. Start with the basics

Before diving into the complexities, there are 5 key concepts that you need to grasp to get a grip on A-Level physics:

a. Newton's Laws of Motion

The first place to start in A-Level Physics is with Newton's Laws of Motion. These laws dictate how objects move and interact with each other, forming the foundation for many other physics topics.

The first law, also known as the law of inertia, states that an object at rest will remain so, while an object in motion will continue to move unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. The second law dictates that acceleration is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to mass, expressed as F = ma. And finally, the third law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction, succinctly summarised as "for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction."

Newton's Laws of Motion

Source: Sciencenotes, 2022

It's important to understand these three laws and be able to apply them in various situations, as they'll come up repeatedly in your studies and exams.

b. The Importance of Units and Dimensions

In physics, it's crucial to be able to use and convert different units of measurement. Dimensional analysis helps to ensure consistency in variables and equations, and to determine the relationship between physical quantities in physical phenomena.

Understanding dimensions, which describe the type of quantity being measured (e.g. length, mass, time), allows you to check those equations are dimensionally correct and identify errors in your work.

c. The Relationship Between Energy and Work

Energy and work are two integral concepts in physics and are related. Energy is a property of an object or system, and can take many different forms (e.g. kinetic energy, potential energy, thermal energy, etc.). Work, on the other hand, is a measure of energy transfer from one object to another.

In order to do work (W), a force (F) must be applied to an object through a distance (s). The amount of work done is equal to the force applied multiplied by the distance moved in the direction of the force:

W = Fs

It's also important to understand the relationship between energy and work in terms of The Law of Conservation of Energy. This principle states that the total energy in a closed system (i.e. a system where no energy can enter or leave) is constant. This means that if energy is transferred from one object to another (i.e. work is done), the total energy of the system remains the same, but the energy is now stored in a different form.

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d. Waves and Optics

Waves and optics are also crucial areas of study in A-Level Physics. Waves describe the motion of energy through a medium and can be either transverse (e.g. light waves) or longitudinal (e.g. sound waves). It is important to distinguish their difference, while understanding the characteristics and properties of waves (e.g. amplitude, wavelength).

In optics, you will learn about the behavior of light and properties of lenses and mirrors. You'll also study the concept of refraction, which is the bending of light as it passes through a material with a different refractive index.

A diagram showing refraction at the boundary between air and glass

Source: A diagram showing refraction at the boundary between air and glass (BBC, 2023)

e. Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is another important area of study in A-Level Physics, and it describes the interaction between electric and magnetic fields. This interaction results in the production of electromagnetic waves, which include radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays.

In electromagnetism, you'll learn about the behavior of electric charges and the forces that act between them. You'll also study the concept of electric fields (E), which describe the force (F) acting on a charged object (q) in a particular location:

E = Fq

and magnetic fields, which describe the force acting on a moving charged object.

In addition to understanding the basic principles of electromagnetism, you'll also learn about the practical applications of this area of physics, such as electrical circuits and transformers.

Brush up on these concepts by reviewing your notes and textbook, and don't be afraid to ask your teacher or A-Level Physics tutor for clarification if you're having trouble with a particular topic.

2. Get hands-on with practical work

Practical work is an integral part of A-Level Physics and can provide a deeper understanding of the concepts. Conducting experiments and analyzing data helps solidify your knowledge and prepare you for real-world applications. Don't shy away from asking your teacher for help and clarification if you're having trouble with a particular experiment.

According to Cambridge University Press, some few practical skills required include:

  • Analysis of data and observations in a table, conclusions and evaluation, using and justifying the correct number of significant figures, plotting a graph, and calculating a gradient are all examples of tasks.
  • Planning an experiment, including identifying dependent and independent variables and quantities that remain constant
  • Evaluation of the method involved and suggesting improvements

3. Practice, practice, practice

The remaining points are tips and tricks that can be applicable to all other subjects that you are taking. Practice greatly increases the likelihood that students will permanently remember new information (Anderson, 2008), and this is especially true when it comes to A-Level Physics. Make sure you regularly complete practice questions and past papers, as this will help you get a feel for the types of questions, especially attempting the units and dimensions part which many students make careless mistakes on. Don't just focus on getting the right answers; think about why a particular answer is correct and what underlying principles it represents. This will deepen your understanding and help you remember the information for longer.

4. Join a study group

Collaborating with fellow students can offer a fantastic opportunity to reinforce your grasp of the material and tackle any trouble spots you may encounter. Picture this: gather a group of classmates or friends who are all pursuing A-Level Physics and coordinate recurrent study sessions. In this setting, tackling tricky subjects becomes a breeze, working on practice problems together becomes a group effort, and holding each other accountable for staying focused on your studies becomes effortless. Not to mention, studying with others can be an enjoyable and social experience.

If in-person studying feels intimidating, not to worry! Online resources such as TheStudentRoom provide an engaging platform for discussions and a space where you can seek out answers to any questions you may have through forums.

5. Seek help when needed

If you're having trouble with a particular topic, don't be afraid to ask for help. Your teacher is there to support you and can provide one-on-one assistance to help you get back on track. You can also reach out to Tutorchase for an expert A-Level tutor if required. Remember, asking for help is a sign of strength, not weakness. The sooner you get the help you need, the faster you can get back on track and achieve your goals.


In conclusion, A-Level Physics can seem intimidating at first, but with the right approach, hard work, and persistence, you can master the fundamentals of this subject and achieve great success in your exams.

With the mindset of achieving great A-Level Physics results, if you have the time, why not take a read on what you can do in your future career with Physics. There are numerous intriguing career opportunities accessible to you, whether you are interested in engineering, science and research, technology and IT, teaching, or something completely else. You may choose the best path for you and start a meaningful and fulfilling career by taking the time to analyse your interests, talents, and goals as well as your possibilities.

Before I end, remember the takeaway of this article: To start with the basics, incorporate practical work, practice regularly, visualize and understand the concepts, and stay organized. Good luck to you!

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Professional tutor and Cambridge University researcher

Dr Rahil Sachak-Patwa

Written by: Dr Rahil Sachak-Patwa

Oxford University - PhD Mathematics

Rahil spent ten years working as private tutor, teaching students for GCSEs, A-Levels, and university admissions. During his PhD he published papers on modelling infectious disease epidemics and was a tutor to undergraduate and masters students for mathematics courses.

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