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How did the Lebanese Civil War of 1975-1990 affect the dynamics of the Arab-Israeli conflict?

The Lebanese Civil War complicated the Arab-Israeli conflict, introducing new actors and shifting alliances, and providing Israel with a pretext for invasion.

The Lebanese Civil War, which lasted from 1975 to 1990, was a complex conflict involving a multitude of actors, including various Lebanese factions, Palestinian groups, Syria, and Israel. This conflict had a significant impact on the dynamics of the Arab-Israeli conflict, introducing new actors, shifting alliances, and providing Israel with a pretext for invasion.

One of the key ways in which the Lebanese Civil War affected the Arab-Israeli conflict was by introducing new actors into the mix. The war saw the rise of various Lebanese factions, such as the Christian Phalange and the Shiite Amal and Hezbollah groups, which would play significant roles in the conflict with Israel. The war also saw the increased involvement of Palestinian groups, particularly the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), which used Lebanon as a base for attacks against Israel.

The Lebanese Civil War also led to shifting alliances in the Arab-Israeli conflict. Prior to the war, the Arab states had largely presented a united front against Israel. However, the war saw divisions emerge among the Arab states, with Syria, for example, intervening on the side of the Christian factions against the PLO and other Muslim groups. This shift in alliances complicated the dynamics of the Arab-Israeli conflict, making it more difficult to achieve a resolution.

Perhaps most significantly, the Lebanese Civil War provided Israel with a pretext for invasion. In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon with the stated aim of driving out the PLO. However, the invasion also served to further Israel's strategic interests, by seeking to install a friendly government in Lebanon and to weaken Syria's influence in the region. The invasion led to a protracted occupation and a guerrilla war with Hezbollah, which further complicated the Arab-Israeli conflict.

In conclusion, the Lebanese Civil War had a significant impact on the dynamics of the Arab-Israeli conflict. By introducing new actors and shifting alliances, it made the conflict more complex and difficult to resolve. Moreover, by providing Israel with a pretext for invasion, it led to a further escalation of the conflict.

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