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A-Levels: A Complete Guide

A-Levels: A Complete Guide

10 min Read|March 03 2024
|Written by:

Dr Rahil Sachak-Patwa


Thinking about A-Levels or wondering what they're all about? A-Levels are key exams in the UK and abroad that help students move from high school to university. But, what makes A-Levels so important? In this guide, we'll cover everything you need to know about A-Levels, from what they are to why they matter. Let's dive into the world of A-Levels together and see what opportunities they can open up for you.

What are A-Levels?

A-Levels, or Advanced Levels, are a set of qualifications offered to students aged 16 and over in England as well as internationally. These qualifications are highly regarded by universities and employers alike, acting as a gateway to higher education and professional careers. They are typically studied over two years, following the completion of GCSEs or IGCSEs. A-Levels allow students to specialise in three or four subjects that interest them or are relevant to their future career path.

  • Duration: 2 years, can be completed in less time; depends on the student as well as the insitution.
  • Subjects Offered: Over 40 subjects, ranging from traditional subjects like Mathematics, English, and Sciences to more specialised ones like Psychology and Sociology.
  • Assessment: Mainly through final exams, with some subjects including coursework or practical assessments.
Number of A-Level certificates issued in the past 10 years in the UK

Graph showing number of A-Level certificates issued in the past 10 years in the UK

Experts argue that A-Levels not only prepare students academically but also develop critical thinking, research skills, and a deeper understanding of chosen subjects, setting a solid foundation for future endeavours.

Are the A-Levels hard?

The perception of A-Levels as challenging stems from their academic rigour and the depth of understanding required. A-Levels demand a significant step up from GCSEs, focusing on fewer subjects but with greater intensity.

  • Depth of Study: A-Levels delve deeply into subjects, requiring a comprehensive understanding and analytical skills.
  • Independence: Students must adapt to a more self-directed form of learning, which can be a major adjustment from the structured environment of GCSEs.
  • Examination Pressure: The final exams significantly impact future educational and career opportunities, adding to the stress levels.
  • Statistics: In 2023, A-Level grading in England saw a shift back to pre-pandemic standards, with the cumulative proportion of A* and A grades dropping to 26.5% from the previous year's 35.9%. This adjustment aimed at maintaining the assessment's rigour, still marking a slight increase from 2019's 25.2%.

The importance of preparation, effective study habits, and utilisation of available resources to navigate these challenges successfully is often highlighted. The transition to A-Levels is indeed demanding, but with the right approach and support, students can achieve academic success.


Table showing A-Levels grade distribution

Statistics from Ofqual show a variance in pass rates and high-grade achievements across different subjects, indicating that some areas may be perceived as more challenging than others. If you would like to explore more on the difficulty of subjects, we've put together lists of the hardest A-Levels and the easiest A-Levels for you.

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What are the benefits of A-Levels?

Diving further into the advantages of A-Levels, these qualifications offer students a broad spectrum of benefits that contribute significantly to their personal and professional development. Beyond academic excellence and career readiness, A-Levels serve as a crucial stepping stone in a student's journey, offering:

  • Broad Academic Recognition: A-Levels are recognized and respected by educational institutions and employers worldwide, facilitating easier access to international study and work opportunities.
  • Development of Expertise: Focusing on a select number of subjects allows students to develop a deep level of expertise and knowledge, making them specialists in their chosen areas.
  • Increased Competitiveness: With A-Levels, students often find themselves in a better position to compete for spots in top universities and prestigious scholarships.
  • Improved Decision-Making Skills: The process of selecting A-Level subjects encourages students to think critically about their interests and career goals, aiding in more informed decision-making about their future.
  • Foundation for Lifelong Learning: The rigorous academic challenge of A-Levels instills a love for learning and a solid foundation for continuous personal and professional development.
  • Critical Role in University Admissions: A-Levels are a fundamental requirement for most university courses in the UK, with universities specifying minimum A-Level grades for admission. This highlights the significance of A-Levels in the higher education application process.
  • Scholarship Opportunities: Exceptional A-Level results can also open doors to scholarships and financial aid, reducing the financial burden of university education.

These benefits underscore the value of A-Levels not just as academic qualifications but as instruments for shaping well-rounded, knowledgeable individuals ready to face the challenges of the future. The emphasis on specialized subjects, combined with the development of critical soft skills, ensures that A-Level students are well-prepared for success in a wide range of future endeavors.

What are the A-Level requirements?

The requirements for studying Advanced Level qualifications vary between schools and colleges but generally include a set of academic and personal criteria that students must meet. These requirements are designed to ensure that students are well-prepared to tackle the challenges of A-Level courses.

  • GCSE Grades: Most institutions require students to have at least five GCSEs at grades 9 to 4 (A* to C under the old grading system), including English and Maths.
  • Subject-Specific Grades: For certain A-Level subjects, schools may require a specific grade in a related GCSE subject. For example, a grade 6 (B) in IGCSE Maths for A-Level Maths.
  • Interviews and Assessments: Some schools conduct interviews or assessment tests to gauge a student's suitability for the A-Level programme.
  • Personal Statement: A personal statement may also be required, highlighting a student's interests, achievements, and reasons for choosing their A-Level subjects.

Education experts emphasise the importance of these requirements as a means of ensuring students can handle the academic rigour of A-Levels. According to the Department for Education, meeting these entry requirements is crucial for success in A-Levels, as they are indicative of a student's readiness for advanced study.

Here is what an expert A-Level tutor has to say:

"Doing A-levels is really good for your future. It shows you can learn tough stuff and think well about problems. Universities and jobs like to see good grades in A-levels because it tells them you work hard and know a lot. A-levels help you learn more about what you want to pursue in the future and can make it easier to go to a good university or get a great job. It's a big step that can help you a lot later on."

What are the A-Level subjects?

Choosing the right A-Level subjects as well as the best A-Level subject combinations is a critical step for students, as noted by education specialists. Here is a list of some major subjects offered in A-Levels, categorised to cater to a wide range of interests and career paths, enabling students to specialise in the specific subject areas that align with their future aspirations:

Sciences and Maths:

Humanities and Social Sciences:


Business and Law:

Arts and Creative Studies:

  • A-Level Art and Design
  • A-Level Music
  • A-Level Drama and Theatre Studies
  • A-Level Photography

The selection of your A-Level subjects not only affect the options for university courses but also shape potential career opportunities. Specific A-Level subjects are often prerequisites for certain university programmes, highlighting the need for students to consider their future plans when selecting their A-Levels. The diversity of subjects available allows students to explore their interests in depth, providing a solid foundation for further academic and professional pursuits.

A-Level Exam Boards

Globally, A-Level examinations are administered in international schools by various boards, each catering to a wide range of subjects and ensuring international standards are upheld:

  • AQA: "Assessment and Qualifications Alliance" is predominantly UK-based and is renowned for its extensive array of subjects. It offers comprehensive resources, ensuring students globally have access to quality education materials.
  • OCR: "Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations" are known for blending traditional subjects with innovative new courses. OCR provides qualifications that are recognized worldwide, facilitating students' entry into higher education institutions globally.
  • Edexcel: As part of Pearson, Edexcel is recognized for its academic and vocational qualifications, offering a curriculum that is appreciated worldwide.
  • Cambridge International: Specializes in providing international qualifications, making A-Levels accessible to students outside the UK, thus broadening their opportunities for higher education and employment globally.

These boards ensure the global standardization of the A Level qualification, enabling students from different countries to pursue opportunities in higher education and employment on a worldwide scale.

Tips for studying A-Levels

Successfully navigating A-Levels requires not only hard work but also strategic planning and the adoption of effective study habits. According to educational experts, the intensity and depth of A-Level courses demand a more sophisticated approach to learning compared to GCSEs. A study by the University of Oxford suggests that students who employ a variety of study techniques, including active revision methods, tend to perform better in their A-Level examinations. Here are concise, actionable tips that cover additional study strategies:

  • Break Down Topics: Segment complex subjects into manageable parts to facilitate easier understanding and retention.
  • Practice with Past Papers: Familiarise yourself with exam formats and time management strategies.
  • Active Recall: Test yourself on the material without looking at notes to improve memory retention.
  • Spaced Repetition: Review material over increasing intervals to embed knowledge deeply.
  • Group Study Sessions: Share insights and tackle challenging topics with peers for diverse perspectives.
  • Mind Mapping: Create visual diagrams to connect ideas and themes for better comprehension.
  • Digital Tools: Utilise apps for flashcards, note-taking, and time management to enhance study efficiency.
  • Healthy Lifestyle: Maintain a balanced diet, exercise regularly, and ensure sufficient sleep to support cognitive function.
  • Scheduled Breaks: Implement short breaks during study sessions to prevent burnout and maintain focus.
  • Feedback Loop: Regularly seek and act upon feedback from teachers and peers to refine understanding and approach.

Additionally, A-Level online courses have become a valuable resource for private candidates, providing structured learning environments, access to comprehensive study materials, and sometimes even tutor support. These courses can supplement self-study by offering guidance on complex topics and exam preparation strategies. By diversifying your study strategies and adopting these tips, you'll be better equipped to tackle the demands of A-Level courses effectively.

Best Resources for A-Levels

Navigating A-Level studies successfully demands access to a wide array of quality resources. These tools not only deepen subject comprehension but also equip students with the skills needed to excel in exams. Below are some of the most effective resources recommended for A-Level students:

  • Revision Websites: Platforms such as Khan Academy and BBC Bitesize offer interactive resources, catering to various A-Level subjects with video tutorials and practice exercises.
  • Past Papers: Utilising past exam papers is crucial for preparation, helping students familiarise themselves with question formats and manage their time effectively.
  • Textbooks and Study Guides: Selecting official textbooks and study guides approved by exam boards ensures reliable and comprehensive coverage of the curriculum, alongside valuable revision strategies.
  • Online Forums and Study Groups: Digital communities, including The Student Room and Reddit’s A-Level forums, provide invaluable peer support, facilitating the exchange of advice and resources.
  • Study Notes: High-quality, expertly curated study notes are an excellent resource for students seeking concise, exam-focused content across subjects. These notes can complement personal revision strategies effectively.
  • A-Level Tutoring: Personalised tutoring services, particularly those offered by reputable organisations, can provide tailored support, addressing individual strengths and weaknesses. Tutors can offer deep insights into subject matter, exam techniques, and effective revision practices.

Incorporating these resources into your study plan can significantly enhance your learning experience. Educational experts advocate for a balanced approach, combining traditional study materials with interactive and personalised learning tools, to maximise academic performance and exam success at the A-Level.

Have a look at our comprehensive set of A-Level Notes developed by expert A-Level teachers and examiners!

A-Level Assessment and Grading Methods

A-Level assessments are designed to evaluate a student's understanding and application of the subject matter studied over two years. The grading system, which ranges from A* (highest) to E (minimum standard required for passing), plays a critical role in university admissions and future career paths. According to the Joint Council for Qualifications, the distribution of final A Level grades is carefully calibrated to reflect both achievement and potential.

  • Examinations: The primary method of assessment, typically held at the end of the two-year course, focusing on analytical skills, critical thinking, and depth of knowledge.
  • Coursework: Subjects include coursework components, allowing students to demonstrate their abilities in research, problem-solving, and practical skills. There are also some A-Levels which don't have coursework.
  • Practical Assessments: For science and technology-related A-Levels, practical assessments evaluate hands-on skills and laboratory techniques.
Grades distribution of A-Levels in UK 2021-2023

Graph showing grades distribution of A-Level in UK 2021-2023

The assessment methodology aims to provide a comprehensive evaluation of a student's capabilities. Experts from the University of Cambridge highlight the importance of these methods in preparing students for higher education and professional life, emphasising the development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The grading process is rigorous, with standardisation procedures in place to ensure fairness and consistency across different examination boards.

Typical Exam Dates for A-Levels

A-Level examinations are a pivotal moment for students across the UK, typically scheduled during the summer exam period. The exact timing can vary slightly by examination board, but the exams generally fall within specific windows to ensure nationwide consistency.

  • May to June: The main period for A-Level exams, with most written assessments taking place over this time.
  • Results Released in August: Students receive their results in mid-August, which determines their university placements and future education paths.

Education authorities emphasise the significance of these dates not only for logistical planning but also for the psychological preparation of students. Schools and colleges typically provide detailed schedules and revision timetables well in advance to support students in their preparation, highlighting the critical nature of this exam period in the academic calendar.

Exploring A-Level Options: Private Candidates and Retaking Exams

Taking A-Levels on your own or redoing them are two ways to help you reach your goals. Here’s what you need to know about each one:

  • A-Levels for Private Candidates: If you decide to study by yourself and take A-Levels, it means you’re not going to a regular school but still want to get these important exams done. You need to find a place that will let you take your exams there. It’s good for people who are homeschooling A-Levels, adults going back to study, or if you just need to take an exam again. You’ll have to be very organized, study hard on your own, and keep up with what you need to learn.
  • A Guide to Retaking A-Levels: Sometimes, you might not get the grades you hoped for and think about taking some exams again. This is a chance to get better marks. Look at what went wrong the first time and make a new plan to study. Getting some extra help, like from one of the best A-Level tutoring companies or joining a study group, can make a big difference this time around.

A-Levels need you to be focused and ready to work hard. Choosing to study on your own, online or retaking exams can be a big decision, but it can also open new doors for your future.

Common Challenges and Strategies for A-Level Students

A-Level students encounter several hurdles that can affect their academic journey and overall well-being. Here are ways to navigate these obstacles effectively:

  • Increased Academic Pressure: Transitioning from GCSEs to A-Levels introduces a new level of academic intensity, focusing on in-depth knowledge and analytical skills. Tackling this starts with breaking study material into smaller, more manageable parts and engaging in active recall practices. Joining study groups and discussions can also demystify complex concepts.
  • Time Management: The demand to juggle coursework, extracurricular activities, and possibly work challenges even the best students. Crafting a detailed study schedule that allocates time for each activity, including breaks, helps maintain a balance. Prioritizing tasks according to deadlines and exam dates ensures that no subject is left behind.
  • Exam Stress: The significance of A-Level results can lead to significant stress. Establishing a routine study schedule well before exams and incorporating relaxation techniques such as deep breathing or yoga can alleviate anxiety. Regularly practicing past papers under timed conditions can also build confidence.
  • Subject Complexity: The depth of A-Level subjects requires a robust understanding of each topic. Utilising a variety of learning resources, including top A-Level revision websites, provides diverse insights and explanations that can aid comprehension. These websites often offer practice questions, video tutorials, and study notes tailored to specific subjects and syllabi.
  • Balancing Extracurricular Activities: While enriching, extracurriculars must not overshadow academic responsibilities. Selecting a few activities that align with personal interests or career aspirations allows students to dedicate adequate time to their studies. Learning to say no is crucial to prevent overcommitment.
  • Preparation for Higher Education or Careers: Thinking about future paths while studying adds another layer of stress. Early research into potential careers or university courses, possibly through discussions with a careers advisor, can streamline this process. This foresight allows students to align their A-Level choices with their future aspirations, reducing last-minute anxieties.
  • When to Start Revising for A-Levels? Beginning revision early is key to avoiding cramming and stress before exams. Starting at least a few months in advance allows for a thorough review of all topics, the opportunity to identify weak areas, and sufficient time to seek help or clarification. A gradual, consistent approach to revision, incorporating regular breaks and varied study methods, can enhance understanding and retention, making the revision process more effective and less overwhelming.

Engaging with these strategies fosters a balanced approach to tackling A-Levels. Schools and educators should also play a supportive role, offering guidance and resources to help students thrive academically while safeguarding their mental health.

Career Pathways After Your A-Levels

Completing A-Levels opens a myriad of career pathways, offering students the flexibility to pursue their interests across various sectors. The choices made at this juncture can significantly influence future professional trajectories.

Gender distribution across A-Levels

Pie chart showing gender distribution across A-Levels

  • University Education: Many students ask the question that can you go to university without A-Levels? The answer is yes, but a significant number of students opt for higher education, with A-Levels serving as a key entry requirement for universities in the UK and abroad. Fields such as Medicine, Engineering, and Law often require specific A-Level subjects.
  • Apprenticeships: For those keen on combining work with study, apprenticeships offer a practical route into industries like engineering, digital media, and finance. These programmes can lead to recognised qualifications alongside valuable work experience.
  • Vocational Courses: Vocational qualifications provide targeted skills for specific job roles, such as in creative arts, IT, and healthcare, offering an alternative to traditional academic paths.
  • Employment: Some students choose to enter the workforce directly after A-Levels, leveraging their qualifications to secure positions in sectors such as retail, administration, and entry-level roles in various industries.
  • Gap Year: Taking a gap year to travel, volunteer, or gain work experience can provide clarity and direction, enriching personal development and employability skills.

The diversity of options underscores the importance of career guidance and self-reflection post-A-Levels. Students who engage in detailed career planning are more likely to find fulfilling employment aligned with their skills and interests. Making informed decisions, exploring various pathways, and considering future trends in the job market are crucial steps for A-Level students navigating their next steps.

A-Levels vs Other Curriculums

Understanding the distinctions among various educational curriculums such as A-Levels, International Baccalaureate (IB), Advanced Placement (AP) programs, and the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is essential for students navigating their academic journeys. Here is a simplified overview of each curriculum's key characteristics:

A-Levels vs. International Baccalaureate (IB):

  • Specialization vs. Breadth: A-Levels enable students to concentrate on three or four subjects, suitable for those with specific career or academic goals. Conversely, the IB curriculum requires students to study a wide range of subjects, including sciences, arts, mathematics, and humanities, promoting a comprehensive educational experience.
  • Core Elements of the IB: The IB curriculum includes unique components such as the Theory of Knowledge course, an extended essay, and the Creativity, Activity, Service (CAS) project, designed to enhance critical thinking, research skills, and community engagement.
  • Recognition: A-Levels are particularly recognized for university admissions within the UK, whereas the IB's international acceptance may benefit students intending to study abroad.

A-Levels vs. Advanced Placement (AP):

  • In-depth Study vs. Subject Variety: A-Levels offer an in-depth exploration of a few selected subjects over two years, while AP courses provide a broad range of college-level studies in subjects such as calculus, history, and biology, among others.
  • Outcomes: High scores in AP exams can lead to college credits or advanced standing at universities worldwide. A-Levels are recognized as a standalone qualification for assessing a student's readiness for specific university courses.

A-Levels vs. GCSEs

  • Educational Stages: GCSEs are undertaken by students aged 15-16, covering a wide range of subjects to lay a comprehensive foundation for secondary education. A-Levels are pursued by students aged 16-18, allowing them to specialize in subjects aligned with their future academic or career paths.
  • Academic Challenge: The transition from GCSE to A-Level marks a significant increase in academic rigor, depth of study, and independence, preparing students for higher education or professional careers.

Each educational pathway offers distinct advantages and is designed to cater to different student needs, objectives, and future plans, shaping their academic and professional futures.

Conclusion on A-Levels

Succeeding in A-Levels is about smart study habits, using the right resources, and taking care of yourself. It's important to know what A-Levels involve and plan your study time well. Resources like websites, old exam papers, and getting help from tutors can make a big difference. It's also key to deal with challenges like stress and managing your time. With a good approach and the right support, you can do well in your A-Levels and prepare for what comes next in your education or career.


Can you go to university without A-Levels?

Yes, it is possible to go to university without A-Levels. Universities may consider alternative qualifications such as the International Baccalaureate, Scottish Highers, vocational qualifications, or Access to Higher Education courses. Entry requirements vary among universities and programs, so it's important to check the specific requirements of your desired institution.

Can you study A-Levels without previous qualifications?

Generally, A-Levels require certain prerequisites or prior qualifications. However, there may be options available for mature students or individuals with relevant work experience. Some colleges and educational institutions offer foundation or access courses specifically designed for those without traditional qualifications, which can serve as a pathway to studying A-Levels.

Can you fail A-Levels?

Yes, it is possible to fail A-Levels. A-Level results are based on the grades obtained in the exams or assessments. If a student's performance falls below the passing threshold or does not meet the minimum grade requirements for their chosen university or program, it can be considered as failing the A-Levels. However, students who do not achieve their desired grades may have options such as retaking the exams or considering alternative educational pathways.

Can you study A-Levels at any age?

A-Levels are typically taken by students who are in the final two years of their secondary education, usually around the ages of 16 to 18. However, some educational institutions or adult learning centres may offer A-Level courses for individuals of different age groups, including mature students or those looking to pursue further education later in life. It is advisable to check with the specific educational providers for age eligibility and enrolment requirements.

Can you study A-Levels part-time?

Yes, it is possible to study A-Levels part-time. Some educational institutions offer flexible study options, including part-time A-Level courses. This allows students to balance their studies with other commitments such as work or personal responsibilities. However, the availability of part-time A-Level programs may vary depending on the institution, so it is recommended to inquire with the respective colleges or schools offering A-Level courses.

Can A-Levels be taken online?

Yes, A-Levels can be taken online. There are online learning platforms and distance education providers that offer A-Level courses, allowing students to study remotely. These programs often provide access to study materials, online lectures, and interactive resources. It is important to ensure that the online A-Level courses are recognised by relevant exam boards and meet the requirements for university admissions or other educational pathways.

How long do A-Levels last?

A-Levels typically last for two years. They are usually studied in the final two years of secondary education in the UK, starting in Year 12 (Lower Sixth Form) and ending in Year 13 (Upper Sixth Form). During this time, students focus on their chosen A-Level subjects, attending classes and preparing for the A-Level exams that are typically taken at the end of the second year.

How many A-Levels do you take?

Students usually take three or four A-Level subjects. It is common for students to choose three subjects in their first year and continue with three or sometimes four subjects in their second year. However, the exact number of A-Levels can vary depending on the educational institution or individual preferences. Some students may choose to study additional AS-Level subjects or take further A-Levels in their second year.

Are A-Levels recognised internationally?

Yes, A-Levels are recognised internationally as a respected and rigorous qualification. They are widely accepted by universities and educational institutions around the world as a measure of academic achievement. However, specific recognition and entry requirements may vary among countries and institutions, so it is important to check with the desired university or educational program for their specific requirements.

How do A-Levels compare to Scottish Highers?

A-Levels and Scottish Highers are both academic qualifications taken in the UK, but they have some differences. A-Levels are typically taken over two years, with a focus on three or four subjects. Scottish Highers, on the other hand, are usually taken over one year and cover a broader range of subjects. Additionally, the grading systems and assessment methods can differ between the two qualifications. It's important to consider these differences when comparing the two options.

Can you switch subjects during your A-Levels?

Yes, it is possible to switch subjects during your A-Levels, but it may depend on the policies of your educational institution. Some institutions may allow students to change subjects early on in the course, while others may have specific deadlines or restrictions. It's important to consult with your teachers or academic advisors to understand the feasibility and implications of switching subjects, as it may impact your coursework, exam preparation, and overall academic progress.

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Professional tutor and Cambridge University researcher

Dr Rahil Sachak-Patwa

Written by: Dr Rahil Sachak-Patwa

Oxford University - PhD Mathematics

Rahil spent ten years working as private tutor, teaching students for GCSEs, A-Levels, and university admissions. During his PhD he published papers on modelling infectious disease epidemics and was a tutor to undergraduate and masters students for mathematics courses.

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