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IB DP Business Management Study Notes

5.2.1 Job Production

In the vast realm of production methods, job production stands out as a unique approach that emphasises customisation and individual attention. It is the crafting of products based on specific customer requirements, ensuring that each product is a one-off piece tailored to exact specifications.

Definition of Job Production

Job production, also referred to as bespoke or custom production, revolves around creating products tailored to individual customer specifications. Unlike mass or batch production where products are made in large quantities or sets, job production focuses on one product at a time. To better understand how job production contrasts with other methods, see comparison with batch production.

Key Features

  • Customisation: The hallmark of job production, products are uniquely tailored to customer specifications, ensuring a high degree of personalisation.
  • Flexibility: As each product is made individually, changes can be easily incorporated during the production process. This adaptability is a crucial component of effective operations management.
  • Skilled Labour: The nature of job production often requires skilled craftsmen or professionals to ensure the product meets the desired quality and specifications.

Implications of Job Production

1. Costs

  • Higher Costs: Customisation comes at a price. The cost per unit in job production is typically higher than mass or batch production due to the intensive labour and unique materials often required.
  • Pricing: Businesses often charge a premium for bespoke products, reflecting the uniqueness and effort put into each product. To understand more about how this impacts financial decisions, read about the advantages and disadvantages of job production.

2. Time

  • Longer Production Times: Crafting products to meet specific requirements takes time. The lack of economies of scale in job production means it often has longer lead times compared to other production methods.
  • Meeting Deadlines: Timely delivery can be a challenge, especially if there are changes to the product specifications or unforeseen challenges during production.

3. Quality

  • High-Quality Products: The focus on individual products often results in high-quality outcomes, meeting or exceeding customer expectations.
  • Quality Control: Ensuring consistent quality can be a challenge, especially if multiple craftsmen are involved in the production process. Learn more about maintaining high standards in quality assurance and quality control.

4. Customer Relations

  • Closer Customer Interaction: Job production requires regular communication with customers to understand their requirements and make necessary changes. This can lead to stronger customer relationships.
  • Feedback Loop: The close interaction allows for immediate feedback, ensuring that the end product is in line with the customer's vision.

5. Inventory Management

  • Lower Stock Levels: As products are made to order, there's typically less need for holding large inventories. This can reduce storage costs.
  • Material Procurement: Since each product might require unique materials, timely procurement becomes essential to avoid production delays. For insights into effective management of resources, see inventory turnover ratio.

Pros and Cons of Job Production


  • Unique Products: Allows businesses to offer products that stand out in the market.
  • Flexible Production: Easier to adapt to changes and incorporate customer feedback during the production process.
  • Lower Inventory Costs: Reduced need for holding stock translates to savings in storage and inventory management.


  • Higher Costs: The bespoke nature of products can lead to increased production costs.
  • Resource Intensive: Requires skilled labour and can be more resource-intensive compared to other production methods.
  • Time-Consuming: Longer production times can be a drawback, especially in markets where quick delivery is crucial.

Real-world Examples

1. Tailored Suits: Each suit is crafted based on individual measurements and preferences, making it a classic example of job production.

2. Custom-made Furniture: Furniture made to fit specific dimensions or designs as per customer requirements.

3. Bespoke Jewellery: Jewellery pieces crafted based on specific designs provided or chosen by customers.

In the dynamic world of business, job production offers a unique proposition, allowing businesses to cater to niche markets and individual customer preferences. By understanding its implications and navigating its challenges, businesses can leverage job production to create a distinctive market position.


Job production is most common in industries where bespoke, customised products are the norm. This includes sectors such as luxury goods (like custom jewellery or handcrafted furniture), construction (especially custom home building), shipbuilding for specialised vessels, and certain arts sectors (like sculpture or commissioned artwork). In these industries, the emphasis is on delivering a product that meets specific, individualised criteria, often with a high degree of craftsmanship or artistic input.

Given the bespoke nature of job production, products often come with a higher price tag compared to mass-produced items. This is due to the customisation, manual labour, and specialised skills involved. Companies often adopt a cost-plus pricing strategy, where the cost of production forms the base, and a markup is added to ensure profit. The markup often accounts for the unique value, craftsmanship, and customisation of the product. This pricing approach ensures that businesses cover their costs while also reflecting the premium nature of the product.

Yes, with the advent of technology, there are many tools and software solutions that assist businesses in managing job production. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software allows designers to create detailed, precise designs which can then be shared with craftsmen or used to guide machinery. Additionally, Project Management Tools help in scheduling, allocating resources, and tracking progress, ensuring timely completion. Furthermore, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems facilitate communication between the client and the business, ensuring that specifications and feedback are accurately recorded and addressed.

While job production offers the allure of high-quality, customised products, it presents several challenges for businesses. The method is labour-intensive, requiring skilled craftsmen, which can increase wage bills. Additionally, the long production times associated with custom products can lead to longer lead times, potentially causing cash flow issues if payments are delayed. The need for frequent communication with customers, while beneficial for relationship building, can also be time-consuming. Lastly, since every product is unique, errors or defects can be costly to rectify, and the business might face challenges in scaling or expanding rapidly.

Job production and made-to-order production both emphasise creating products tailored to individual customer needs. However, they differ in scale and application. Job production typically involves crafting unique, one-off items that are highly bespoke, often requiring specialist skills or machinery. Think of custom-made jewellery or tailored suits. Made-to-order production, while still based on customer specifications, often pertains to more standardised products with variations, like choosing the colour or features on a car. Here, the base product remains similar, but specific features or parts might change based on the order.

Practice Questions

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of job production as a method of manufacturing.

Job production is characterised by the creation of unique, tailored products based on specific customer requirements. One of the main advantages of job production is the ability to produce bespoke items, meeting the exact specifications of the customer, which can foster stronger customer relationships and potentially command a premium price. Additionally, it offers flexibility, allowing for changes to be incorporated during the production process. However, there are also disadvantages. Job production tends to have higher costs per unit due to the intensive nature of creating custom products. Moreover, it often requires skilled craftsmen, which can be expensive and time-consuming, leading to longer lead times compared to other methods like batch or mass production.

How does job production impact inventory management and customer relations in a business?

Job production has a distinct impact on both inventory management and customer relations. In terms of inventory management, job production often leads to lower stock levels, as products are made to order. This can reduce storage and holding costs for a business. However, it also emphasises the need for timely material procurement since each product may require unique materials. On the customer relations front, job production necessitates closer interactions with customers to understand and meet their specific requirements. This frequent communication can foster stronger, more personalised customer relationships. Moreover, the feedback loop inherent in the job production process ensures that the end product aligns closely with the customer's vision, enhancing satisfaction.

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Written by: Dave
Cambridge University - BA Hons Economics

Dave is a Cambridge Economics graduate with over 8 years of tutoring expertise in Economics & Business Studies. He crafts resources for A-Level, IB, & GCSE and excels at enhancing students' understanding & confidence in these subjects.

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