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IB DP Computer Science Study Notes

1.1.5 Installation Processes in Systems Development

Implementing a new information system within an organisation is a critical step that demands careful planning and consideration of various installation methods. The installation process selected can greatly influence the overall success of the new system, its integration into the company's workflow, and its acceptance by the user base. Understanding different installation processes, and their respective advantages, disadvantages, and social as well as ethical implications, is essential. This detailed examination will provide insight into how each method works and its impact on the organisation and its staff.

Understanding Installation Methods

Choosing an appropriate installation method is key to a successful system update or implementation. Each method has distinct characteristics and is suitable under different circumstances.

Parallel Running

Parallel running is a conservative and low-risk approach where the new system runs simultaneously with the old one for a specific period.

  • Advantages:
    • Mitigates risk: If the new system fails or errors occur, the old system acts as a backup.
    • Eases transition: Staff can adapt to the new system without pressure, reducing resistance to change.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Resource-intensive: Requires additional effort as data need to be entered into both systems, increasing workload.
    • Extended transition: Prolongs the period of change and can lead to confusion or operational inefficiencies.

Pilot Running

Pilot running involves implementing the new system in a small, controlled part of the organisation before a full-scale rollout.

  • Advantages:
    • Problem isolation: Issues are confined to a small group, minimising overall business risk.
    • Feedback opportunity: Provides valuable insights into how the system performs in a live environment.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Limited view: May not reveal all challenges, as the pilot group may not use all features of the new system.
    • Skewed representation: The pilot group's experiences might not accurately represent the broader organisation's experience.

Direct Changeover

Direct changeover, or the 'big bang' approach, is the immediate and complete switch from an old to a new system.

  • Advantages:
    • Immediate transformation: Offers a quick transition and immediate results.
    • Resource efficiency: No need to run two systems in parallel, reducing the workload.
  • Disadvantages:
    • High risk: Any failure in the new system can have immediate and widespread consequences.
    • Stressful: Places significant pressure on staff and management to adapt quickly.

Phased Conversion

Phased conversion involves implementing the new system in segments over a period.

  • Advantages:
    • Controlled implementation: Reduces risk as each phase can be evaluated and adjusted.
    • Easier management and training: Smaller changes are generally easier for staff to absorb and manage.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Prolonged process: Can extend the overall time to achieve full implementation.
    • Potential inconsistencies: Different parts of the organisation might be using different systems at the same time, leading to operational challenges.

Social and Ethical Considerations

Beyond the technical aspects, the social and ethical implications of system installation are pivotal in determining its success and acceptance.

Training Needs

The introduction of a new system often necessitates training for users.

  • Training Challenges:
    • Can be resource-heavy, requiring time and money.
    • Users with varying levels of tech-savviness may find different rates of learning, possibly leading to frustration or resistance.
  • Ethical Aspects:
    • It's imperative for organisations to ensure equal opportunity for all staff to learn and adapt, avoiding biases and exclusion.

Workforce Restructuring

Implementing new systems can lead to significant changes in job roles or even staff reductions.

  • Impact on Employees:
    • Job insecurity and the stress of adapting to new roles can affect morale and productivity.
    • Redundancies might be necessary if new systems automate previously manual tasks.
  • Ethical Management:
    • The process should be managed with transparency, honesty, and support, such as offering re-skilling opportunities.

Inclusivity and Accessibility

The design and implementation of new systems must consider the needs of all potential users, including those with disabilities.

  • Considerations for Diversity:
    • Systems should be accessible, taking into account different physical and cognitive abilities.
    • Cultural and linguistic differences should also be considered, especially in global organisations.

Key Takeaways

In summary, the installation process of a new system in an organisation is a critical decision with far-reaching implications. Parallel and pilot running are generally safer but more resource-intensive, while direct changeover and phased conversion have their own sets of risks and benefits. Essential to the success of any installation method is the consideration of the human element – the users. Training, workforce restructuring, and ensuring inclusivity and accessibility are just as crucial as the technical aspects. An installation process that is technically sound but fails to consider these social and ethical aspects is unlikely to succeed or be well-received by its users.

Thorough understanding of these processes helps in creating an effective plan for system implementation. It's not only about achieving technical success but also ensuring employee well-being, ethical integrity, and broad acceptance of the new system within the organisation.


User feedback plays a crucial role during the pilot running installation process. It provides real-world insights into how the system performs outside of the controlled test environment. Feedback from the pilot users helps identify unforeseen issues, practical challenges, and usability problems that may not be apparent to developers or within a laboratory setting. It also allows the organisation to gauge how well the system meets user needs and expectations. Gathering and acting upon this feedback is essential for refining and improving the system before wider rollout. This user-centric approach helps in fine-tuning the system’s functionality, interface, and performance, ensuring that it is more aligned with the actual working conditions and user requirements. Effective utilisation of feedback can lead to higher user satisfaction, smoother adoption, and ultimately, a more successful system implementation.

The choice of an installation process can have important implications for system security. In a parallel running method, maintaining security across two systems simultaneously can be challenging, as it might stretch the organisation's security resources and monitoring capabilities. This dual system environment could potentially expose more vulnerabilities. In contrast, a direct changeover approach, while eliminating the risk of running two systems, poses a different kind of security risk. If the new system contains undiscovered security flaws, the entire organisation's data and operations could be jeopardised instantly upon switch-over. Phased conversions and pilot running offer more controlled environments to test and strengthen system security incrementally, allowing security teams to address vulnerabilities in smaller segments of the system before full-scale implementation. Ultimately, ensuring robust security measures and thorough testing is integral regardless of the chosen installation method, but the method itself can dictate the security management approach and resource allocation.

The size and complexity of an organisation significantly influence the choice of installation process. Larger organisations with complex systems and multiple departments may favour phased conversion or pilot running, as these methods minimise disruption and risk. In a large setting, direct changeover could be too risky due to the potential for widespread system failure and the challenging scale of immediate user adaptation. Smaller organisations might opt for direct changeover or parallel running, considering the lower scale of potential issues and the ease of managing change across fewer users. In complex environments with varied user needs and operational practices, a one-size-fits-all approach like direct changeover is less practical. Instead, a phased or pilot approach allows tailoring parts of the system to specific departmental needs, ensuring smoother integration and user satisfaction.

Yes, the installation method can significantly affect the overall lifecycle cost of a system. For instance, parallel running might lead to higher short-term costs due to the need for running two systems simultaneously, requiring more resources in terms of hardware, software, and human effort. However, it might save costs in the long run by ensuring a smoother transition and reducing the risk of costly errors or downtime. Direct changeover, while less resource-intensive initially, can result in higher unexpected costs if the new system fails or significant issues arise post-implementation. Phased conversion and pilot running can balance these aspects by providing a more controlled and gradual implementation, potentially reducing the risk of expensive failures. Each method's impact on ongoing maintenance, support, training, and operational efficiency also contributes to the total cost of ownership of the system. Therefore, the choice of installation method should consider both immediate and long-term financial implications.

To ensure smooth operation during the transition phase of system installation, an organisation should undertake comprehensive planning, provide thorough training, and establish clear communication channels. Firstly, detailed planning, including contingency strategies for potential issues, helps mitigate risks associated with the transition. This involves understanding the new system's requirements and preparing the existing infrastructure for change.

Secondly, effective training tailored to different user groups ensures that employees are prepared and confident in using the new system. This reduces resistance to change and minimises productivity loss.

Thirdly, maintaining transparent and regular communication throughout the organisation about the changes, timelines, and expectations helps manage anxieties and uncertainties among staff. This communication should also include channels for feedback and support, allowing users to express concerns and get help when facing difficulties during the transition.

Lastly, the organisation might consider employing a dedicated support team during and immediately after the transition to address any technical issues swiftly. This proactive approach can significantly contribute to maintaining continuous, smooth operations and facilitating a successful system installation.

Practice Questions

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using a phased conversion approach for system installation in a multinational corporation.

A phased conversion approach in a multinational corporation has several advantages. It allows for a more controlled and manageable implementation, reducing overall risk. Each phase can be evaluated for effectiveness and adjusted if necessary, making the system more adaptable to diverse operational environments and cultures within different regions of the corporation. Additionally, it enables targeted training and support, addressing the specific needs of each department or region gradually.

However, the phased approach also has disadvantages. It prolongs the total time required for complete implementation, potentially leading to a longer period of adjustment and inefficiency. Furthermore, inconsistencies might arise between different departments or regions if they are at different phases of the conversion, complicating overall operational coordination. This approach might also result in a temporary mix of old and new systems within the same organisation, leading to integration challenges.

Discuss the social and ethical implications of not providing adequate training during the direct changeover method of system installation.

Not providing adequate training during a direct changeover method of system installation carries significant social and ethical implications. Socially, it can lead to increased stress and anxiety among employees, as they are expected to adapt immediately to a new system without proper guidance. This can result in a decline in morale and productivity, negatively impacting the work environment. Additionally, it can widen the digital divide within the organisation, as individuals with differing levels of technological proficiency might struggle to keep up.

Ethically, insufficient training implies a lack of support and consideration for employees' needs and capabilities. This oversight can be seen as neglecting employee welfare and may lead to feelings of resentment or unfair treatment. In the long term, this neglect can harm the reputation of the organisation, affecting its ability to attract and retain skilled workers. Adequate training is not just a logistical necessity; it’s a commitment to employee empowerment and ethical responsibility.

Alfie avatar
Written by: Alfie
Cambridge University - BA Maths

A Cambridge alumnus, Alfie is a qualified teacher, and specialises creating educational materials for Computer Science for high school students.

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