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IB DP Chemistry Questions

8.5 Acid Deposition

Question 1

Which of the following is a primary source of acid rain?

A. Evaporation from oceans

B. Combustion of fossil fuels

C. Photosynthesis in plants

D. Melting of polar ice caps

Question 2

What environmental damage is NOT typically caused by acid rain?

A. Deforestation

B. Ocean acidification

C. Soil nutrient depletion

D. Erosion of historical monuments

Question 3

Which of the following is a strategy to reduce emissions causing acid rain?

A. Increasing the use of coal-fired power plants

B. Using catalytic converters in vehicles

C. Deforestation

D. Overfishing

Question 4

Which of the following lakes would be most susceptible to the effects of acid rain?

A. A lake with a high limestone content

B. A lake in an industrial area

C. A lake in a desert region

D. A lake surrounded by dense forests

Question 5

What is the primary component responsible for the acidification of rain?

A. Carbon dioxide

B. Sulphur dioxide

C. Methane

D. Hydrogen

Question 6

a) Explain the primary sources of acid rain and how they contribute to its formation. [3]

b) Describe one significant environmental impact of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems. [2]

Question 7

a) What is the significance of the pH scale in relation to acid deposition? [2]

b) How does acid rain affect the structural integrity of buildings and monuments, especially those made of limestone? [3]

Question 8

a) Describe the mechanism of buffer action in the context of soil and how it can resist changes in pH due to acid rain. [3]

b) Why is continuous acid deposition detrimental to the buffering capacity of soil? [2]

Question 9

a) What are the primary gases responsible for acid deposition? [2]

b) How do these gases originate from human activities? [3]

c) Explain the term "dry deposition" in the context of acid deposition. [2]

Question 10

a) Describe the relationship between acid rain and the pH level of soil. [3]

b) How can acid rain affect agricultural practices? [3]

c) Suggest a method to mitigate the effects of acid rain on agriculture. [2]

Question 11

Which of the following is NOT a restoration method for ecosystems damaged by acid rain?

A. Liming

B. Afforestation

C. Overfishing

D. Controlled burning

Question 12

How does acid rain primarily damage historical monuments?

A. By promoting fungal growth

B. By causing physical cracks

C. By reacting with the minerals in the stone

D. By fading the colours

Question 13

Which of the following gases is NOT a significant contributor to acid rain?

A. Nitrogen dioxide

B. Sulphur dioxide

C. Carbon monoxide

D. Nitric oxide

Question 14

What is the primary reason for the decrease in pH of natural water sources due to acid rain?

A. Increase in hydroxide ions

B. Increase in hydrogen ions

C. Increase in carbonate ions

D. Increase in oxygen molecules

Question 15

Which of the following is NOT a direct consequence of acid rain on aquatic ecosystems?

A. Decrease in fish population

B. Increase in algal blooms

C. Release of harmful metals from sediments

D. Decrease in water temperature

Question 16

a) What is the significance of Ka and Kb in the context of acid-base equilibria? [3]

b) How do Ka and Kb relate to the strength of acids and bases? [2]

c) Given that the Ka for a weak acid, HA, is 1.0 x 10^-5, calculate the pKa for this acid. [2]

Question 17

a) Explain the concept of "buffer action" in relation to acid-base equilibria. [3]

b) How do buffers maintain their pH when small amounts of acid or base are added? [3]

c) Name a common buffer system used in laboratories and its components. [2]

Question 18

a) What are the primary natural sources of acid deposition? [2]

b) Explain how acid rain can lead to the corrosion of limestone buildings. [3]

c) Describe the impact of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems. [3]

d) How can the use of scrubbers in industrial processes help reduce acid deposition? [2]

Question 19

a) What is the difference between "wet deposition" and "dry deposition" in the context of acid deposition? [2]

b) How does acid rain affect soil nutrient availability? [3]

c) Describe a strategy that countries can adopt to reduce transboundary air pollution leading to acid deposition. [3]

d) What are the primary components of a buffer solution that can resist changes in pH? [2]

Question 20

a) How does acid rain contribute to the process of eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems? [3]

b) What is the significance of the term "alkaline rain"? [2]

c) Describe a method to restore a freshwater ecosystem that has been damaged by acid rain. [3]

d) How do catalytic converters in vehicles help in reducing the emissions that contribute to acid rain? [2]

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