### Question 1

**Which of the following best describes the concept of binding energy in an atomic nucleus?**

A. The energy required to break the nucleus into its constituent protons and neutrons.

B. The energy released when a nucleus undergoes fission.

C. The energy required to add an extra neutron to the nucleus.

D. The energy released during the fusion of two light nuclei.

### Question 2

**In a nuclear reactor, what purpose does the moderator serve?**

A. To absorb excess neutrons.

B. To speed up the neutrons.

C. To slow down the neutrons.

D. To initiate the fission process.

### Question 3

**Which of the following conditions is NOT required for nuclear fusion to occur?**

A. High temperature.

B. High pressure.

C. Presence of a magnetic field.

D. Presence of heavy nuclei.

### Question 4

**The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is an example of which type of particle accelerator?**

A. Cyclotron.

B. Synchrotron.

C. Linear accelerator.

D. Betatron.

### Question 5

**What is the primary reason for pursuing controlled nuclear fusion on Earth?**

A. To produce radioactive isotopes.

B. To generate electricity without producing greenhouse gases.

C. To study the behaviour of plasma.

D. To produce heavy elements.

### Question 6

**a) **Define the concept of binding energy and explain its significance in nuclear reactions. [3]

**b)** Given that the mass of a proton is 1.0073 u and the mass of a neutron is 1.0087 u, calculate the binding energy of the helium-4 nucleus, which has a mass of 4.0015 u. Use the energy-mass equivalence principle, E=mc^2, where c is the speed of light (3 x 10^8 m/s). [4]

### Question 7

**a)** Describe the process of nuclear fission and its significance in energy production. [3]

**b)** A particular fission reaction releases an energy of 200 MeV. If a nuclear reactor carries out 10^20 such reactions per second, calculate the power output of the reactor. [4]

### Question 8

**a)** Explain the conditions required for nuclear fusion to occur and its significance in stars. [3]

**b)** The fusion of two deuterium nuclei produces a helium nucleus, a neutron, and an energy of 3.27 MeV. If the Sun undergoes 10^38 such fusion reactions every second, calculate the energy released by the Sun in one day. [4]

### Question 9

**a)** Explain the concept of half-life in radioactive decay and its practical applications. [3]

**b)** A radioactive substance has a half-life of 10 hours. If you start with 1 gram of this substance, calculate how much of it remains after 30 hours. [4]

**c)** Discuss the advantages and limitations of using radioactive dating techniques to estimate the age of geological samples. [3]

### Question 10

**a)** Describe the basic functioning of a cyclotron in accelerating charged particles. [3]

**b)** A cyclotron accelerates protons to a kinetic energy of 50 MeV. Calculate the speed of these protons, and explain any relativistic effects that may be observed at this speed. [4]

**c)** Discuss the significance of cyclotrons in particle physics research and medical applications. [3]